All animals have innate immunity. It is a non-specific mechanism that provides a rapid response
to a pathogen. They don’t adapt to previous attacks.
Barrier defence (ex. Skin and membrane lining of our organs) it stops the pathogen from
entering the body. If the pathogen enters the body, the body can distinguish between their cells
and pathogen and kill it.
Molecule recognition is specific receptors that recognize molecule in pathogen such as LSP and
peptidoglycans by using toll-like receptors.
It can lead to other responds such as inflammation of the area, or fever.
TLR have small amounts of receptors on the cell membrane that can recognize many conserve
chemical in virus such as LSP and peptidoglycan that animal cells don’t express.
TLR3 recognize double strand RNA, TLR4 recognize LSP, and TLR5 recognize bacterial protein to
make their flagellum.
Hemocytes are equal to white blood cells that circulate in their fluid. First the phagocytic must recognize there is a pathogen, and then it engulfs the pathogen by
endocytosis forming vacuole. Then the lysosome will come in the fuse with the vacuole spilling
its digestive enzyme into the vacuole killing the pathogen. After it spits it out though exocytosis.
Since the lymphatic system picks up all the loss of water and material and return it back to the
circulation system. Phagocytes cells can clean the blood because it has the lymph node that
stores a lot of phagocytes.
It creates swelling in the area that recruits a lot of phagocytic to kill the pathogen when it enters
the skin. It ha