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Neurons and Synapses.docx

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KINS 2295

 It provides support, regulates the extracellular concentration of neurotransmitters and provides immune protection.  The action potential moves along the axon by propagation. When Na gates are open and Na flows into the cell it becomes depolarize then it spreads to the other sections. However, the message can only be sent in 1 direction because of refractory period (inactivated loop).  K inside the cell Na outside the cell. 60mV – 80mV.  It maintains a concentration gradient for Na and K transporting 3 Na out and 2 K in.  K have more open channels than Na. So fewer Na diffuse into the cell and more K diffuse outwards.  By increasing the cell membrane to be more permeable to K making the cell MORE negative.  By increasing the cell membrane to be more permeable to Na making the cell more positive.  Resting State, Depolarization, Rising phase of Action Potential, Falling phase of Action Potential, and Undershoot.  Voltage gates of Na and K are closed, maintain a resting membrane potential (negative inside positive outside).  The Na voltage gates open letting the Na to come into the cell making the cell membrane potential more positive.  In order for this to happen the depolarization must reach threshold. After a huge spike happen opening all the Na voltage gates.  Na voltage gates are closed, after a very short delay K voltage gates are open K will rapid move outside.  Action potential have a very small undershoot because it don’t have an inactivation loop that quickly close off the K pump. Na pump have this so they are faster closing
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