Fallacies of Relevance and the Socratic
o Appeal to authority/tradition/bandwagon
o Appeal to emotion
o Appeal to personal attack
o Red herring
o Begging the Question (does not mean “leads to the question”)
Arguing in a circle
Have one or more premises assume that conclusion is true
Not an argument
Bible is the word of God. Bible says the God exists. God exists in the bible. }
Circular, not an argument
Art is trash. Therefore, it is worthless.
Look for validity, invalidity
Truth of premises soundness
Saying something is valid is not saying much. Bertrand Russell
o If you make the assumption of the world being definite, you will be imprisoned.
o Imprisoned by what? Common sense, habits, culture, time, national identity.
o If you never question your beliefs without reasons, they are not your