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Theories of Motivation.docx

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PSYC 1115

Theories of Motivation 5 major theories of motivation: *Instinct Theory: originates from instincts: a set of behavioural blueprints - Inborn--activated by environmental stimuli; similar to involuntary responses - Motivated by instincts - ex) flight-flight responses ; how dogs naturally know how to take care of their babies without learning - ex) eat, form social contacts--behavior motivated by insticts *Drive Reduction theory: -Behavior also motivated by biological needs, internal push -Based on concept of homeostasis: tendency to maintain body in a state of equilibrium - ex. of doing just the opposite: going onto rollercoaster-- too much excitement *Arousal Theory: - Behavior motivated by need to achieve optimum/appropriate arousal - Motivated by no specific goal, but to satisfy your arousal(ex. curiosity) - No rewards or punishment, besides emotional reward of arousal - ex.) seeking out gossip and information just because of curiosity - Arousal can affect our performance on our tasks *- Yerkes-Dodson Law: states that the ideal performance of a tasks is when our arousal level is right for the difficulty of the task---the more complex a task is, the less arousal wanted for the optimum *Incentive Theory: -motivated by internal and external rewards/incentives intrinsically motivating: motivated by internal rewards/incentives; behavior that is satisfying in & of itself ex) satisfying curiosity by gossiping extrinsically motivated: motivated by external rewards/incentives ex) re
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