Chapters 21 and 22
Spontaneous and unstructured behavior
Reaction to an ambiguous situation
An unpredictable source of social change.
Emergent Norm Perspective (Turner and Killian)
1. Ambiguity of situation provides open ground for the emergence and redefinition
of appropriate behavior.
2. New norms "emerge"
Value-Added Perspective (Smelser)
1. Series of structural and interactional conditions resulting in definite patterns of
behavior. 2. Structural conduciveness (emergence of conflicting interests)
o how people get along with each other
social control fail