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Lecture 3

ARCL-1006EL Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Chin, Zygosity, Phenotype

2 Pages
36 Views
Winter 2018

Department
Environment
Course Code
ARCL-1006EL
Professor
Alice Hawkins
Lecture
3

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ARCL 1006
January, 17, 2018
Genetics
Recap of Mendel’s peas experiment
Mendel’s conclusions
That both parents contribute “unit factors” or what we would call GENES to the off-spring
When the genes are different only one is expressed (excluding co-dominant)
When gametes (sex cells) are formed, paired genes separate randomly so each sex cell
receives one or the other gene with equal likelihood
Terms
Phenotype: the observable physical appearance of the organism
Gene: chemical unit of heredity
Allele: alternate forms of a gene
Genotype: the total complement of inherited genes of an organism
Homozygous: individual carries the same allele for a specific gene
Heterozygous: individual carries different alleles for a specific gene
Dominant gene: expressed allele
Recessive gene: unexpressed allele
Co-dominiant: both alleles expressed
Alleles and Dominance in human blood groups
Alleles: A, B, O
Dominant: A & B (co-dominant)
Recessive: O
Phenotypes and Genotypes
person with blood type A has what possible genotypes?
A -> AA OR AO
Parents with blood types A and B would have offspring that might have what blood types?
A,B,O or AB
Mendelian Traits
Coded by a single gene:
cleft chin
cheek dimples

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ARCL 1006 January, 17, 2018 Genetics Recap of Mendels peas experiment Mendels conclusions That both parents contribute unit factors or what we would call GENES to the offspring When the genes are different only one is expressed (excluding codominant) When gametes (sex cells) are formed, paired genes separate randomly so each sex cell receives one or the other gene with equal likelihood Terms Phenotype: the observable physical appearance of the organism Gene: chemical unit of heredity Allele: alternate forms of a gene Genotype: the total complement of inherited genes of an organism Homozygous: individual carries the same allele for a specic gene Heterozygous: individual carries different alleles for a specic gene Dominant gene: expressed allele Recessive gene: unexpressed allele Codominiant: both alleles expressed Alleles and Dominance in human blood groups Alleles: A, B, O Dominant: A B (codominant) Recessive: O Phenotypes and Genotypes person with blood type A has what possible genotypes? A > AA OR AO Parents with blood types A and B would have offspring that might have what blood types? A,B,O or AB Mendelian Traits Coded by a single gene: cleft chin cheek dimples
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