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Lecture 3

ANTH 150 Lecture 3: Anthro Final. Notes for Final

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ANTH 150

1 October 25,2016 Religion, Science and Racism • Western ideas and other way of knowing! o Medieval Europe: Religion ( was the main source for everything  any question you had. You were suppose to find the answers in the religious books) • Day 6: God creates the land animals and human beings (genesis 1:27)  the answer how we became who are we. • 5 Millennium BC – Plato and Aristotle: ‘plants and animals form a single, graded continuum’ o Continuum from more perfection to less perfection (most advance to less advance) • Graded Continuum organized by a life giving Supreme Being! o In other worlds… everything in life had be nicely arranged by a supreme being • Graded Continuum recognized as: o The “Great Chain of Being’ ▪ Everything created, linked and all links necessary ▪ Because they are created, animal and plant forms couldn’t become extinct! ▪ Universe is created • (is the base of the creation theory) • Bible asserted: Single Origin of humankind o Adam and Eve our progenitors! • But, 16 and 17 centuries: o Contact with America and Africa resulted in different views ▪ Some even argued that ‘ Adam the forefather of Jews ONLY’ • “Adam not the first man, but the first Jew” • Christians believed God made them but who made the Jews? o Thus, theory of Polygenesis (multiple origins) emerged ▪ Single creation not only questioned, but suggested that mankind had 3 ancestors • With theory of Polygenesis o Blacks and Whites with different ancestry! • As Bible’s power continued to decline o Theory of Polygenesis gained more support • First definition of Race (raza) emerged by 1611 o Raza = Honorific (quality), and/ or o Raza = Pejorative (lineage of Jews) • Also ‘race’ linked to blood o Christian blood different and superior from Jews • 17 and 18 century: ‘race’ still used variously 2 o example: the ‘English race,’ the ‘French race’ etc ▪ nations (nationalities) seen as ‘races’ o But, terminology continued implying: ▪ Stability and unchangeable features • By 18 century arguments of o ‘pan- European white race’ o While beyond Europe, peoples of colour ▪ The, concept of Polygenesis gained more acceptance o Peoples of different origins must NOT mix! ▪ France (1778) legislations against intermarriage with Black • In Canada with ‘Indians’ ▪ Portugal and Spain even much earlier th • 18 century: Enlightenment – time of questions! o Why the order of things? ▪ (Great Chain of Being  started challenging it and trying to verify it) o Natural history, comparative anatomical studies (first time in history) o SCIENCE became prominent – replaced Religion ▪ Scientific Research! • From now on, it was up to: • (people had to start with nothing  it was hard and unknown…) o Scientific Research – to explain our origin! o Obvious human PHYSICAL variation ▪ Try to define the boundaries of the ‘races’ • Even measuring peoples heads • Carolus Linnaeus (1707 -1778) o Father of binomial nomenclature and classification (scientific names) ▪ Homo sapiens (‘wise man’) ▪ Cannis familiaris (dog) ▪ Cavia porcellus (guinea pig) ▪ Oryza sative (rice) • Classified everything in order • Hierarchical Classification o Species: Units of organisms that could interbreed only among themselves (a reproductive community) o Sub – Species , optional (geographic variation of species) still the same group overall o Linnaeus; Species created, limited, fixed in form and unchanging! o 1758  Systema Naturae ▪ Humans placed next to apes and monkeys ▪ Because • Skeletons are identical 3 o Example: 1 and 2 limb bone formation o Linnaeus accepted creation by God ▪ But, his classification – closer to evolution o Linnaeus (1758) produced frist racial classification of humans ▪ Four different sub species of Homo sapiens • H. sapiens afar (Black • H. s. asiaticus (yellow) • H. s. europaeus (white) • H. s. americanus (Reddish) ▪ Classification based on: • Physical, Psychological, Behavioural/ Cultural traits (how would he have done the last 3 if he never really left Sweden?) ▪ Physical: Skin and Hair colour, hair type and facial features ▪ Behavioural • Europeans: active, smart, inventive (we will always say nice things about ourselves) • Africans: crafty, slow, foolish • Asians: melancholic, greedy • Americans: lazy, brutish ▪ Social life: • Europeans ( H. s. europaeus): ruled by law • Africans (H. sapiens afar): ruled by caprice • Asians (H. s. Asiaticus): ruled by opinion • Americans (H. s. americanus): ruled by custom ▪ Linnaeus: 4 races with innate differences in intelligence • Europeans intellectually superior to Africans • Was Linnaeus a racist fellow? o Most likely reflected the society which he lived in • One of the best educated of his time! o Linnaeus, a window to 18 century Europe 27.10.2016 Watch  Scientific Racism The Eugenics of Social Darwinism (58 minutes) • Linnaeus’ classification helped to develop stereotypes o Brutish, greedy, foolish, stupid… o Labels for peoples of colour, the poor and marginalized o Most of these labels persist! ▪ Most Canadians can easily say “the drunk Indian’ ▪ Labels like this are often for the poor  the poor people today have be marginalized for centuries has nothing to do with being lazy! • Comte de Buffon (1707 – 1788) 4 o 1749 popularized stereotypes introduced by Linnaeus o created his own classification ▪ Laplander, Tartar, South Asiaiatic, European, Ethiopian, American o Believed in single origins- Creation! o Human differences due to environment ▪ Saying that we are COMPLETELY different o Climate, food, soil, air created physical variations o Strong believer of ‘degeneration theory’ • Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752- 1840)  Physical Anthropologist o Also strong supporter of degeneration theory o His focus was: SKULL shape ▪ “The most significant to separate the races’ ▪ Skull ‘ resistant ‘ to environmental influences • Believed the skull could not change o Blumenbach believed in Single Origin o Made the largest skull collection from all over the world with the hope of ▪ Finding the original • The one who were actually made from god • And who where the ones who degenerated ▪ The ‘ideal skull type’ o He concluded ▪ Caucasoid skull is not only the most beautiful and perfect, but also the Original form (the one’s created by God’s hands)  anything else was degeneration o “Evidence’ for humans’ single ancestry: Caucasoid ▪ Other shapes are degenerated forms ▪ Differences are because of degeneration o Skull measurements signalled morphological differences o Reasons for degeneration? ▪ Like Buffon, environment and climate were to blame (anything besides the European environment was not good for humans) ▪ European environment very kind to humankind ▪ America, Africa not that kind – dangerous environments o On the Natural Varieties of Mankind (1776) ▪ Labels • Caucasoid • Mongoloid • American Indian • Ethiopian • Malay o Blumenbach also convinced in the existence of boundaries between the ‘races’ ▪ Taking measurements of the skeleton to define the boundaries 5 • Physical Anthropology ▪ Boundaries to prevent mixing and racial purity • But there were disagreements and oppositions o James Prichard (1826) ▪ Against division in few fixed species ▪ ‘No such thing as a Negro race’ • ‘There are variation within African peoples’ o not all Africans look the same ▪ First to point out that Africa is diverse o Charles Darwin (1871), The Descent of Man ▪ The ‘so-called races of men’ ▪ Studied animals because he believed there was way to much to study humans • Despite the oppositions, early efforts of Linnaeus, Buffon and Blumenbach followed by Scientific Racism! o Scientist that follow after these 3 found their ideas very attractive o This is at the base of white supremacy • In this manner, with Science: o Humankind no longer the children of God o Instead, became part of the animal kingdom o To be studied just as one more member of the animal kingdom • As a result o Spiritual Chain of Being replaced by a Naturalistic Chain of Being • Other attitudes also emerged: o With Religion there were efforts to demote Blacks from human to ape ▪ “blacks are apes or at best half-apes’ o With Science efforts to deny totally humanity to all non-Caucasians o The US and THEM (other) ▪ Humans and the inferior beings ▪ Became SO strong during this time! • Scientist such as Buffon argued the superiority of Caucasians o Why Ingenuous? Caucasians faced challenges like securing food ▪ In the process, they became smart o Why not Ingenuous? Blacks, stupid and simple because they found food easily! ▪ Life was (is) less challenging for Africans! • Most of these people never even set foot in Africa • Environment ‘makes one smart or stupid’ • These ideas were nothing NEW! o Spaniards in Mesoamerica ▪ Mesoamerican Civilization are non-Indigenous! • Decided that a Caucasoid came long before them 6 o Then must have experience degeneration because of the horrible environment ▪ Could not believe that the Indigenous people could make pyramids • Must have been built by Caucasoids • Now, Europeans found themselves in such Hostile environments o They may degeneration as will and become stupid o “Must alter existing environment’ ▪ but no one knew how, or how long it would take o Blacks Africans already in the Americas ▪ Expected to turn White, but nothing • The Ugly and Stupid VS the Beautiful and Smart o Scientists also developed  aesthetic prejudice ▪ Ugliness and Beautifulness o Blacks less beautiful, more barbarous and likely less intelligent ▪ Intellectually inferior and aesthetically ugly ▪ Only white women could blush • ‘white women are more beautiful’ ▪ this continue into our time  think of beauty pageants • Christoph Meiners (German Philosopher) o 1798 Outline of the History of Humanity o Ranked humans in a hierarchy and correlated beauty with intelligence o Meiners Argued: ▪ Whites the most beautiful and the most intelligent ▪ Coloured: ugly, barbarous, and at best ‘semi-civilized’ • Opposing views o Thomas Jefferson – Notes on Virginia ▪ Blacks equal to Whites in their moral senses ▪ Intellectual inferiority of blacks? • Jefferson was not fully convinced! ▪ Jefferson familiar with black peoples – he had slaves • With Meiners (early 1800s), Idea of Pan-European INTELLIGENT white peoples emerged • But, soon differences among Europeans emerged o Northern Europeans Vs. Southern Europeans ▪ Southerners NOT white enough! ▪ Not as intelligent as those from the north! • Stereotypes for peoples different from Whites o Stereotypes influenced attitudes towards others o Including to Mediterranean Italians – ‘lazy’ • Samuel Morton (1799-1851) and new discipline of craniology o Skull shape and size indicator or race and character ▪ Followed Blumenbach 7 o By the time he died in 1851, Morton had collected more than 1000 skulls of people from around the world. o He measured the brain volume of these skulls by seeing how much mustard see they would hold. ▪ To see who has the largest brain  therefore the smartest o Morton concluded: ▪ Native Americans with small cranial volume ▪ Caucasians with bigger cranial volume o Morton: Caucasians are more intelligent of the races o Morton took a special interest in native Americans, both north and south ▪ Wanted to justify that colonization was good. That Native people were inferior and okay if they were killed o Study results in: Crania Americana ▪ Wanted to demonstrate the inferiority of AMERINDIANS ▪ Justified the treatment of native Americans by Europeans- Americans • People have the tendency to believe the educated people • THIS IS BAD SCIENCE • 3.11.2016 • Morton believed in POLYGENESIS o Nothing in common with aboriginals nothing in common with black people • Morton supported the invasion of Indigenous lands by American soldiers • American government paid a dollar for every head of killed Indians ▪ Most of these heads went to the collection of Morton himself o Killings were part of “manifest destiny” ▪ Many people don’t know about this • People in South America believe that they would be different if they were taken over by the Americans… that they would be better... but they would be dead • 19 century: Anthropometry and Eugenics o Morton, physician from Philadelphia, made skull measuring very popular ▪ Everyone was a subject to provide data o With Anthropometry, ancient skulls and living people targeted: Stature, hair form, and nose shape measured to distinguish PRECISE groups ▪ With these measurements they thought they could be defined different human groups in to races ▪ HUMANS were being treated as any other animal species o However, “traits’ were selected arbitrarily ▪ No criteria at all! o Doubts emerged about the fixed number of RACES ▪ To some, racial classification unimportant! 8 o In addition, there was the realisation (FINALLY) all humans could freely interbreed ▪ Producing fertile offspring ▪ Critics: humanity with common ancestry! • It would be impossible to truly separate the races if there was races because at some time there was a mixing o Emphasis on cranial shape and size was because some believed that: ▪ Skull shape “resistant” to change • Good source to find out ancestry o But contradiction  degeneration o Skull targeted also because it houses the BRAIN ▪ Person’s character and intelligence indicated by skull shape th • Phrenology, PSEUOSCIENCE, popular in 19 century; to measure human abilities and talents o To find out the racial ancestry of individuals ▪ US Military, school children, university students, prison convicts as guinea pigs ▪ Researchers started using probability statistics ▪ To measure and predict BEHAVIOUR o “Scientist” believed that measurements ‘can help sorting mankind into hierarchy of abilities’ ▪ Researchers: “we can identify criminals types” o Crime in urbanized Europe committed by ‘biologically inferior persons’ ▪ ‘Born criminal” ▪ Lower social classes targeted! ▪ 8.11.2016 The extraordinary –genius sperm bank Awakenings 1954- 1956 (America’s civil rights movement) 1-2 Fighting Back 1957 – 1962 (America’s Civil Rights Movements) • Ceseare Lombroso, Criminals with: o Receding forehead, large ears, square and projecting chin, broad cheekbones, left-handedness, deficient olfactory & taste organs and with tattoos ▪ These were born criminals • Critics: Charles Goring o The English Convict: A Statistical Study (1919) o Criminality not restricted to particular racial stocks ▪ Criminality is a social product  society makes a person that way • Francis Galton (1822-1911) father of Eugenics • Eugenics, mid 1800s 9 o “there are behavioural differences among social classes; some with greater mental ability” o “Eugenics is the study of the agencies under social control, that improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations either physically or mentally” – Galton • Francis Galton – Hereditary Genius (1869) o Genealogies of British upper Classes ▪ Galton stated: “Upper classes distinguished themselves in science, law, government, literature’ because they have superior genes… o Galton’s study became source of Scientific support for ‘race’ and social inequality • Galton believed in ‘progress’ of civilization o ‘Civilization is the work of genius minds. Superior race’ o However, ‘Inferior races are obstacles to ‘progress’ ▪ In the America’s Indigenous people are viewed this way still today ▪ Where you find the original societies you Andes, china, Egypt etc. there are coloured people and now there are poor people. • Civilization threatened by high reproduction among the poor, weak, or sick – “inferior races’ • The poor were allowed by upper classes to live and reproduce rather than being eliminated! o Upper classes are nice…! ▪ In the ameican south this kind of talk was common during this time • Upper class not only smart, but also benevolent! • Galton: intelligence is inherited—scientific fact! o Only choice was to alter the relative fertility of the good and bad ‘stocks’ o Haphazard marriages must be controlled to stop reproduction of the unfit! ▪ People who had good ‘gene’ like good jobs should be allowed to reproduce • Sterilization o Heads of states took the ‘scientific’ advice! o Indigenous Peoples targeted worldwide o Including Canada – Dona Williams from BC ▪ These women are often poor women, coloured women  they don’t tell them what is happening. • Thomas Robert Malthus and Essay on the Principle of Population (1798): o Human population grows too fast while food production is slower o If no control, humanity will face famine – not enough food! o Suggested: ‘moral restraint’ ▪ Maybe we should make less children… (choice) 10 o With Eugenics, the ‘ moral restraint’ was almost mandatory for the poor, working class families and coloured peoples (law) • Galton and his Eugenics Society – ‘good birth’ o Society to encourage; mating of talented people o To increase number of eminent people and improve ‘race’ ▪ Hoping to improve the human race • Galton’s ideas accepted: Western Europe and US o Nazi Germany! • 1912 First Eugenics Congress o Eugenics Review and Biometrica ▪ Publication and guiding philosophy had and continue to have, deep influence in society ▪ This book had been influence in many places ▪ Scientist do have a lot of power of many things o Eugenics at the foundation of WHITE SUPREMACY • After Galton th • Early 20 century – eugenics movement grew rapidly; particularly in US • Charles Davenport (US zoologist) was the leading advocate o He accepted eugenics • 1904 found Station for Experimental Evolution (Cold Spring Harbour, Long Island) o From animals to humans (1910) o Eugenics Record office gathered census and family data ▪ Every immigrate who entered the US in the east had to come through his station ▪ If they were unfit he sent them back to where they came from • Davenport, ‘family bloodlines and races are pre-arranged for certain roles in life’ o Born to govern; born to be worker; born to be slave! ▪ This is very similar from the caste in India • If born POOR to remain POOR o One could only blame his/her blood • Critics of Davenport: o Poor understanding of how genes work! • Franz Boas observed plasticity of physical traits o Children of immigrants to US look different than parents often taller and more solid o Human bodies change • Boas: traits are not absolute or permanent o Changes of the bodily form of immigrants’ descendants o Head shape the more changeable trait! o Regarded as the father of Biological Anthropology • Herbert Spencer – studied English social issues o But, he ‘distorted’ Darwinian evolution o Misapplied concept of ‘struggle for existence’ and ‘natural selection’ 11 o “The survival of the fittest’ ▪ “it is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is most adaptable to change” –Charles Darwin • Spencer: o Explained poverty and growing gap in education, health care and behaviour in biological terms o Not well educated, not healthy, with bad behaviour because of Genes o Seemingly nothing to do with social aspect (eg. Poor education, poverty, marginalization,… ▪ Never considered any social issues o People in a social hierarchy rise to top because SUPERIOR HEREDITY ▪ Less endowed people fall behind ▪ Savagery, barbarism, civilization! • Once a upon a time we were all savages and then some of us with big brains became barbarism and then those with the biggest brains became civilized ▪ Cultural Evolution • Savagery  Barbarism  Civilization o Humanity had and has CHOICES, but not to Spencer; instead it is a competition! Scientific Racism: Linnaeus, Conte de Buffon, Blumenbach, Meiners, Morton, Lombroso, Galton, Davenport and Spencer 15.11.2016 White Supremacy • It marks the highest point of racism • Outcome of ‘scientific’ research o Geneticists, Psychologists and Social Scientists • Scientific Racism and Eugenics • Genetics (Eugenics) Provided the ‘scientific’ basis: “It’s in our genes’ o Children inherited everything from their parents ▪ Mental ability ▪ Aggression ▪ Social Pathologies o This system maintained and justified SOCIAL INEQUALITY • White Supremacy represents fullest ideological and institutional development of RACISM o In southern USA: 1890s- 1950s o Nazi anti-semtism: 1933-1945 o South Africa: 1910- 1980s ▪ White Supremacy in the USA and South Africa were legalised – with laws • Features of White Supremacy includes 12 o An official ideology ▪ A racist ideology ▪ Believed that differences are unbridgeable o Laws forbidding interracial marriage ▪ No mixing to maintain ‘racial purity’ or ‘blood purity’ o Segregation was mandated and maintained by laws ▪ Discrimination became official ▪ Created economic inequlity between segregators and segregated o Exclusion of segregated groups from holding public office ▪ This too place within a ‘democracy’ in the case of USA o Unequal Acces to basic resources ▪ The segregated were kept in poverty or deliberately improvished The American Case • American Indepence stated: ‘all men wre created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights; that among therse are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness’ o However slaves could not claim the same rights as white people o Not humans  not citizens o Thus, black people watched independence from the sidelines • African Americans questioned American Independece o Are the principles logical? ▪ To blacks, there were CONTRAPDICTIONS in the professed ideals and its reality ▪ George Washington and talks of ‘liberty, natural rigths and hatred of enslavement’ • To African Americans o Ideals were incompatible with slavery o Many asked themselves  How is that possible? • The British accused Americans about their contradictions o Samuel Johnson  “How is it that we hear the loudest yelp
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