Class Notes (807,726)
Canada (492,831)
Anthropology (102)
ANTH 150 (12)
Valdez (3)
Lecture 2

ANTH 150 Lecture 2: Anthro Midterm 2. Notes for Midterm 2

18 Pages
Unlock Document

MacEwan University
ANTH 150

1 Past history is so heavy on our shoulder 29.09.2016 Anthropology 150 Midterm 2 Colonization and Colonialism • European Colonialism o Profound impact worldwide o Peoples of every continent SHARE a common past, a colonial past imposed by Europe! o European worldview and worldview of the ‘other’ ( Christians and Pagans o The Superior and ‘Happy children of nature’ ▪ Because people near the equator didn’t wear clothes o The ‘ Other’ became even more visible ▪ Humans or not? • Many choose very quickly that they weren’t humans • Those that said they were humans had to explain why nobody from Europe had heard of them then • How was Europe back then? o Iberia and Holy Wars of Reconquista – costly! ▪ Royalties introduced TAXES o The Edict of Expulsion – Jews out of Iberia ▪ 120,000 to 150,000 Jews + CAPITAL gone! o Spain and Portugal: bankruptcies and debts o Such problems were opportunities for their neighbours ▪ Dutch Merchants ▪ Iberians borrowed money  at high cost o France: political centralization and no foreign debt ▪ Home grown agricultural surpluses ▪ Land- based tributary feudalism emerged • But, France couldn’t compete in commerce abroad! o The capital France back then was very very small o The United Provinces of the Netherlands ▪ Dutch, federation of merchant oligarchies ▪ Dependent on sea-borne commerce ▪ Invested in foreign trade • Adapted to foreign commerce (banks) th o Amsterdam: 16 century, monetary capital of emerging capitalism o One of the first places that created banks o Britain, progressive minded aristocracy ▪ Attuned to commerce opportunities 2 ▪ Sheep raising and wool cloth production • BUT, British Crown was poor and less powerful o Was not in the position to go anywhere else yet ▪ Crown, merchants and landowners – unified! • 17 Century – banks! o Dutch and British: to maximize the possession of wealth in hands of the State to be competitive ▪ The state was in charge of the capital in these two countries to be competitive with other countries o Search for a passage to Orient (India) ▪ Roadblock in eastern Mediterranean o European expansion: Portugal 1415 ▪ From Port of Ceuta to West Africa and Atlantic Islands (Madeira 1420, Benin 1448,…) ▪ Contact with Africa • ‘world a storehouse of commodities’ • changed the attitude of western Europe o New ideology in Europe  ‘world is a market’ ▪ Anything there has, or should have , its price! ▪ Land, humans, labour, ideas, water, sex… ▪ Commodities just need a price tag! ▪ This is the foundation of CAPITALISM • With contact, European powers came face to face with small scale societies o But also with some powerful empires as well: Aztecs and Inkas • Colonization and the New Colonial order! o Colonies linked to European Monarchies o Formerly distant Nations linked by colonialism ▪ Aztecs and Inkas linked with Spain • No evidence that they even knew that the other existed before 1492 ▪ The Tupi and Guarani to Portugal ▪ Haiti and Hurons to France ▪ Iroquois and Cherokee to Britain ▪ Iroquois and Aborigines to Britain • Colonization and the new Colonial Order also implied: political control and Economic control o 1. Political Control ▪ A hierarchy of administrative system that was alien • To supervise locals and extract resources • To control the ‘Others’ against competing European rivals 3 o Portuguese and the Dutch  Tupi Natives (eastern Brazil)  approaching the Tupi’s saying stay with us, fight with us and fight against the enemy o Often members of one group found themselves divided ▪ With the New Colonial Order • Colonizers with authority to decide • Vertical rule from European masters to the conquered Indigenous Peoples (this kind of rule persist still in our times  all the leaders have European ancestry) ▪ New System designed to divide communities (they were never asked it just happened to them) • Iroquois in Canada and USA • Blackfoot in Canada and USA • Mapuches in Chile and Argentina ▪ Political control of colonized continues today (there has been a little change we have a long way to go) o 2. Economic Control ▪ Conquered in the obligation to pay TAXES ▪ Often, taxes in precious minerals • Working for cash at mining centres ▪ Conquered in the obligation to work for their ‘superior’ masters • The outcome of generation and generations of this is what we see today ▪ Conquest achieved for God, Gold & Glory ▪ Search for wealth—exploiting local resources • Minerals and mining centres • Land: ‘ Crown resources, “Crown land’ ▪ Exploitation of the ‘Others’ • Process of dehumanization ▪ The Indigenous peoples of the Americas were conquered • Militarily, Biologically ad Ideologically ▪ 1. Military Conquest • right to control the colonies (land and peoples) • free access to peoples labour • Free access to native women ▪ Early colonizers only men! 2. Biological Conquest • European diseases – smallpox, measles… o French and the Hurons o Portuguese and the Tupi of Brazil o Spanish and the Tainos • Introduction of new animals and plants 4 o Such as pigs  destroyed the landscape o Animals and humans carry diseases o The worst disaster in the history of humanity! • “Indians are inferior” • 04.09.2016 • Central America: The Burden of Time  Watch ▪ 3. Ideological conquest • spread of Christianity! My Religion is better! • Indians to be converted forcefully o Bring the Holy Cross o Worshiping foreign Gods! o Two different worldviews ▪ Christians: One God ▪ Indians: Several Gods • There was always resistance  they protested it, some even died • It didn’t make sense to them to have one God • Eventually the aboriginals added the Christian god  since they had some many gods Europeans couldn’t believe that they would ever truly become Christians  then thought must not be humans ▪ ‘Your Gods cannot cure you”  Europeans • “our God is more powerful” • 1492 • Humanity not ready for encounter o Cultural diversity little understood o Europe extremely intolerant to its own peoples! (Jewish and muslim) ▪ This intolerance became even bigger when they say people in the amazon region wandering around nude • Against peoples physically and culturally different o Increased prejudice • European racial attitudes flourished o Politically and Economically powerful o Attitudes of SUPERIORITY prevailed • But, Europe was ready to: o Accumulate trade goods ▪ Minerals, beaver pelts… o Extract resources – labour and minerals o Philosophy of mercantilism already in place o Exploiting the colonized to the point of dehumanizing them ▪ Becoming very materialistic • Colonialism spread globally • Natives resisted 5 o Resisted to labour, taxes… o But, resistance only increased prejudice and discrimination ▪ Lazy Indians! It’s in their blood! (Not like us hard working people) ▪ It must be in the water, air – environment! • Conquered peoples were: o ‘Treacherous savages, sinister foes…” • Indians were NO match for advanced cultures and Superior peoples o Doom to vanish! o Canadian Indians supposed to vanish within 2 generations ▪ That is why when the treaties were made the Europeans said that they would do anything because they expected the natives to die • Europeans with condescending attitudes o Conquered = “ Charming primitives’ ▪ ‘Happy Children of Nature’ o First Nations seen as ‘domestic animals’ ▪ In need of ‘protection’ • Paternalistic attitudes toward the conquered o Canada and the Indian Act (changed many times over the years to make this document more ‘effective’) o Canada self-granted the right to decide for ‘its Indians’ o Basically saying shut up I will speak for you  you don’t know your rights • Believed  Indians will benefit from conquest o Assimilation; “They will learn from us’ o France: ‘settle to be civilized  told this to hunter gathers who moved all the time’ “Be like US” o Attempts to transform the first nation people into Europeans to civilize them • Efforts to transform the individual  European o Assimilations! o Happened many places o Don’t speak you language--. So many aboriginal language has disappeared • In doing this, colonizers failed to acknowledge that Indians never needed outsiders’ assistance! o They existed fine without the interference of the ‘Superior’ o Colonization, life changed ▪ Not the same since 1492 • Today there is so many First Nation people who are landless and poor in jail • The Noble Savage o Discussing about the Other in a monologue ▪ Who are they? What are they? o BUT NOT INTERESTED IN LISTENING TO THE OTHER 6 ▪ We still continue in this direction today… o Colonizer’s views about the Other prevailed! ▪ Naked innocence = Noble Savage ▪ Europeans have written books and books about first nations but the first nations did not have an opportunity to do that o Conquerors produced an IDEAL image ▪ What an Indian should be ▪ The idealized Indians that NEVER changed ▪ Savages were no match to the civilized ▪ People still believe that aboriginal people behave in the way that Europeans first saw the aboriginal people o The colonized ‘without’ history • Time of Blood purification in Spain o Columbus in the ‘New World; - Hispaniola (To honour the Queen Isabella) o Caribbean Islanders converted o Bartolome de las Casas – the first to fight for human rights • Treated as if they were enemies • Bartolome de las Casas asked why they were treating them this way o ‘But, they are Indians – not Muslims, not Jews’ o ‘Not our Enemies” • Asked  But, Who are they? How did they arrive here? • Pre-contact European beliefs o ‘monstrous races’ o sub-human ‘wild men’ o somebody started to tell stories about these “monsters’ the Europeans believed him • Columbus: ‘Indians similar in Colour to Canary islanders’ o ‘friendly, simple children of nature’ o ‘they could be converted, assimilated’ • Canary Islanders o First enslaved, until –NOT Jews or Muslims (many wondered why they were doing this because they weren’t jewish or Muslim  not enemies o Then, assimilated through intermarriage ▪ When Europeans arrived they forced all the people into slavery ▪ Plantations emerged here ▪ Then somebody pointed it was wrong because they weren’t muslim but then they intermarried ▪ 11.10.2016 • Columbus: other Indians are hostile, ‘cannibals’ o They could be subdued by force or killed • The Choices: o To assimilate or 7 o To exterminate! • *many people who never been to the Americas began to write books • Christian Church and colonial enterprise o “Christians holy duty is to save souls’ • Indians: ‘MAYBE descendants of Lost Tribes of Israel’ o If so, ‘they have nothing to do with Christ’s crucifixion” o ‘Unlike Jews and Muslims Indians never rejected Christ’  There was no proof ▪ more reason for the Catholic church to do everything that they could do to convert the first nations people • Bring the words of Christ! o Christianization and Assimilation! • In Hispaniola (Present day Dominican Republican): encomiendas established o Spaniards became land owners o Land came with the Indians o Everything found on the land was theirs and could do anything they want with it. Including the Indians ▪ The Native became their Indians – labour! • THIS CONTINUED FOR THE NEXT 300ISH YEARS! o Brutal exploitation of the Indians  included children for generations • 1511, Jose de Acosta and Antonio de Montesinos: o how to justify the widespread suffering and abuse of Indians? o One of first to say whatever we are doing in the Americas is WRONG! How can we justify everything we are doing? • Campaign for the Human Rights of Natives was born o About the survival of Indigenous Peoples • 1550 – 1551: Bartolome de las Casas and Juan G. de Sepulveda (contact with the Spanish crown) o Are the Indians humans? Do Indians have reason? ▪ Sepulveda said no and said it was good if we used them they will learn from us! ▪ Sepulveda: “non-rational, brutish beings’ • But useful to Spaniards • Could become Christians only by FORCE ▪ De Las Casas: “They are rational, capable of civil life; Christians without right to control and exploit” • Natives existed without Europeans fine • Their exploitation is inhumane • The Caribbean Islands: o Encomiendas and diseases  depopulation • From the Caribbean Islands to mainland! o 1519 Cortes in Tenochtitlan (Aztec)  gold and things beyond their wildest dreams in these two places 8 o 1532 Pizarro in Cuzco (Inca) • Long established European beliefs challenged o Religion – Day 6: God creates the land animals and human beings (Genesis 1:27) • But, Progressive European minds: who are we? o Realised that RELIGION did not explain all! • Mesoamerica was just the starting point o North and South waited to be ‘discovered’ ▪ Looking for onther places like Tenochtitlan with all of its treasure • Bernal Diaz (secretary of Cortex) o Tenochtitlan ▪ Most beautiful city – nothing like it in all Europe ▪ Soldiers asked if it was real or was it just a dream ▪ Said we found this beautiful city but when we left it it was destroyed • Shortly after, A NEW SOCIAL ORDER implanted in Americas and beyond (Asian, Africa and the Pacific) o Colonial life! o Every one from these places seen as inferior creatures and were there to be exploited • Spain, Portugal, France, The Dutch and Britain o Behind the Colonial LIFE ▪ Had wars almost everywhere! • As the humans status of Indians’ was discussed behind the Indians o More encomiendas (land divisions) established from Mexico to Chile o Land, Indians and Resources owned by Spaniards and Portuguese ▪ A lot of people from Spain and Portuguese were poor when they came  couldn’t read etc • Christians convinced: o God handed new lands to them in recognition for their victory over Muslims! o It is a divine intent (Manifest destiny) o With rights to dominate non-Christians • Pope Alexander VI legitimized Spanish claims by Papal Bull 1493 o To expand Christianity • Portugal: African west coast and eastern Atlantic o What about us? \ • Portugal and Spain agreed to divide the land to themselves (Pope) o Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 ▪ Official document to take over the land and control the Indians • By 1559, some 800 missionaries in Mexico alone o But, natives resisted Christianity ▪ Church’s mandate 9 • ‘destroy their sacred places’ ▪ Answer: It is impossible! • They worship Rocks, lakes, mountains, rivers, the sun… • Kidnapping the Indians a common practice!  brought them to Europe o Portuguese – took Native peoples from eastern Canada to Portugal ▪ Also from eastern Brazil o French (Jacques Cartier, 1534) – kidnapped a Stadacona chief to France o Other European power did the same globally ▪ Human zoos in Europe  this is how they created the others Africa • Homeland to human species; bipedalism and tool making • Northern Africa and Europe = long established contact • Prior to mid 15 century little contact with sub-Saharan Africa = contact only indirect (Europeans had little or no knowledge about this area) • Direct contact with the region (sub-Saharan Africa) produced positive and negative views o Positive: Bl
More Less

Related notes for ANTH 150

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.