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Lecture 1

ENGL 103 Lecture 1: English 103 Detailed Notes for entire semester

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Department
English
Course
ENGL 103
Professor
Jack Robinson
Semester
Winter

Description
English 103 – AS01 January 9, 2017 Important key term: dramatic monologue: a poem in the form of a speech or narrative by an imagined person, in which the speaker inadvertently reveals aspects of their character while describing a particular situation or series of events. “My Last Duchess” Browning make sure the dowry is large. (amount of money) the statue at the end of the poem. This is a satire. The author is mocking the speaker (Satire: the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues.) presenting a message for female equality, and against male abuse of power She was too quick to be pleased. Too easily impressed Who would stoop to blame it? Who would stoop to communicate about it? The duke would. It would lower his status. Lying when he says that he’s not skilled in speech He had someone kill her He’s asking for what he would like his next duchess to be like. (make sure the dowry is large, be sure she doesn’t flirt too much) Much irony saying the daughter’s self is his object. That’s the last thing he’s interested in. he’s interested in a large dowry and that she knows how to behave. The sculpture and they painting (the two works of art). The painting according to the duke says you smile at too many people for the wrong reasons and you will not smile anymore. You will be a painting on my wall. He made her into a work of art. The poet is saying “this is terrible.” The two works of art are showing that the duke has power. January 11, 2017 “My Last Duchess” Margaret Atwood They respect miss Bessie because she has an MA. She dresses very well, always elegant. Nice shoes, nice suits. How do the students feel when miss Bessie asks them questions in class? Nobody wants to speak up, out of fear of making a fool of themselves, by giving a wrong answer, or equally bad to get the right answer. What’s the girls name? the speaker? We do not know Bill is the math guy. Gets frustrated. The girl is the English person. Good at literature. The final exam room would be hot, topple out of their desks in a cold faint, other girls had unexpectedly got their periods, boys had nervous breakdowns, others forgot everything wrote their own names over and over, another drew a meticulous triangle on every page. Other people think the duke is a perv, a creep, a jerk for bumping off his last duchess. He could’ve put her in a convent, then she wouldn’t be dead. The math guys like this option better. But the poem says “all smiles stopped together.” The narrator understands why the duke did what he did, she thinks the duchess was a dumb bunny, a simp, too cheap. Thinks the duchess is just like the popular girls at school who smile too much and are cheap. She is reading from her own experiences. Sees Tess and Ophelia as similar. She runs all the boyfriends through her life, just like the duke goes through duchesses. She Is in charge of her boyfriends, in control, like the Duke. Gender roles. Although she’s in control she’s still being confined by the rules, has continuous boyfriends because that’s the way it should be, when she’s catcalled, she can’t respond because that’s the way it is, holding the binder in front of herself. Her self-image is that she’s absolutely in control. Margaret Atwood is a feminist. The grade 12 exam is the mark between girl to womanhood. January 13, 2017 Regarding to women as a body. 1975 Laura Mulvey’s essay “visual pleasure and narrative cinema” Mr. Robinson thinks she is an unreliable narrator. Not deliberately lying, there are just things in the situation that they do not see. Maybe just because she is young. The narrator blames the victim. Liminality: the narrator is in a trance. Stays to herself. In the basement. Believes that going to university sets her apart, makes her better than those who didn’t “go on” She’s been shaped by an attitude that there must be an order. January 16, 2017 “Sailing to Byzantium” Yeats and “True Trash” Margaret Atwood “That” is earth. It is no place for old men. Artifice – art. I’m leaving behind my body and I will take another form, I want it to be some kind of art that will sing of the soul, such as a gold bird sitting on a golden bow – golden bow represents eternal life. In the end the speaker confesses his attachment to life, to sensual life, because what will the golden bird sing about? It will sing about what is past. Earthly life. The life of the senses. The poem is circular; it comes back to the beginning. Structural irony of the poem. The girls mentioned by name come from different classes. Ronettes parents are from the working class, she comes from town Joanne is between high school and first year university. She’s applied for a scholarship which will decide if she makes it to university. (1) (14) – That is no country for old men (2) (17) – The young in one another’s arms (3) (21) – whatever is begotten, born, and dies (4) (22) – caught in that sensual music (5) (29) – sick with desire. (2) Darce and Ronette. Darce is handsome, he wants Ronette. They are embracing and Joanne thinks of the young in one another’s arms. Joanne is roasting marshmallows and ignoring Perry who wants to make out with her. Perry is angry. She angers Ronettes power to give herself up. Joanne is interested in “going on” and university. She is very careful of control. She says she envious but she’s certainly wary of it. (3) Ronette comes to Joanne saying she’s in trouble. she is pregnant. Joanne thinks “caught in that sensual music.” Neglecting the monuments of un-aging intellect. (4) they talk. What’s next? The young people leave. They talk about birth control, the pill, abortion. 11 years later Joanne is in York university, Toronto. She sees Donny they go for coffee; he wonders whatever happened to Ronette? The 60s were the sexual revolution. The pill. Earlier on sex had been thought of secret. The reflects that after the revolution, it is just what everyone does. Makes her think of what she will tell Donny about what she knows. She loves being literary, determining how the story will go. Useful analytical tools: In the past 40 years the whole field of literary theory, the academic study of literature and philosophy and culture has been influenced by literary theory. Goes into political theories like colonization. The fields of theory merge. Binary, binaries, or binary oppositions: Theorists have recognized that some binary oppositions have dominated our cultural thinking, asserting the superiority of one term of the binary over the supposed inferiority of the other term (men/women, white/black, etc.). Theorists have deconstructed these binaries or examined them critically. -Two terms against each other, one is superior. Men versus women. The conventional view in our culture is to value men more than women. The women scantily clad and the men playing hockey making multi-million dollar salaries. The binary of race. (non- indigenous indigenous) Intersectionality: This term names and defines the multi-dimensionality of cultural life and of personal identity. Sanders finds that our definition of the male gender depends very much on our class background. Hooks uses the phrase “white supremacist capitalist patriarchy” to convey the ways in which race, class, and gender intersect to define the most powerful groups in society and to distinguish them from the powerless. Age and health might also be named as key intersecting terms. The absent referent: Victims are often represented while persecutors are not. For example, we see the suffering Christ but not the Romans who murdered him; we see the black man shot in the street but not the police officer who shot him; we see the missing or murdered indigenous woman but not the unfound and untried perpetrator. Since media images repeatedly show us the victim rather than the perpetrator, we gradually slip into the assumption that the victim is victimized by his or her own inadequacy or iniquity rather than by other people or by social circumstance. We see these people as innately or inherently victims. -the news always shows us the victim. Missing indigenous women, always hitchhiked in the wrong places at the long time, partied with the wrong people. Like the narrator in my last duchess, blaming the duchess. January 18, 2017 “True Trash” Margaret Atwood Through Joanne’s perspective. So we see her thoughts and feelings, even though it is in third person. A combination of distance and closeness. Section one: afternoon break, early in camp: boys ogle the girls (male gaze): Donny the thoughtful and sensitive one Male gaze – assessing the female body. Culture views it as acceptable. Women in culture think it is acceptable. The NFL playoffs. Donny is thoughtful and sensitive. He is participating, doesn’t feel as excited, doesn’t notice Ronettes body, but her missing tooth. Sees her as an individual. Donny’s mom would think Ronettes perfume is cheap. Only cheap girls wear earrings. She is forbidden (according to what his mom would think). He wonders what the girls are reading. He knows he should only be interested in their bodies. Section 2: The magazine story. Magazine is called true romance; they nickname it true trash. The story, she lives in a small place above a shoe shop. She is chased by two guys. Chooses Dirk, he has a motorcycle. Girl gets pregnant, goes to the rich guy who agrees to marry her. They get a dog. Her mom works a lot and makes dresses. She is working class. True trash is a parallel to the main plot. *****does she keep the baby or no? Section 3: dinner, the 9 waitresses. Some are rich and are there to learn to work and to meet boys. Others like Ronette need the money. Darce = Dirk. They all think Darce is the most handsome. Donny is one of the young boys, he likes Ronette. Scene 4: Darce brings the boys past the windows and salutes to the waitresses, and they wonder who. Joanne’s boyfriends the salad chef on the railway. Miss Fisk (no country for old women – in reference to the Yates poem). Joanne’s romantic thoughts of death before 30. That night Joanne reads the rest of the story (she always likes to know the end of the story) Scene 5: boys and Monty, throwing underwear in tree Scene 6: double date. Necking behind the rock (the young in one another’s arms – another reference to Yates poem) Joanne wonders how Ronettes has the power to give herself up without reservation. Scene -: Tension rises: Donny & Monty on canoe trip, they hear Darce talking about Ronette as “summer sausage,” Monty rubs it in, Donny throws his binoculars in lake the next morning, Donny is shipped back home (20). Darce says he is porking her. The binoculars are the device through which they are objectifying the girls. Next Scene: End of summer: Ronette confides in Joanne about her being “in trouble” (“caught in that sensual music”) (21) Will she get rid of it? (“Whatever is begotten, born, and dies”) Ronette says no (22): parallel to magazine story. 11 years later: Joanne meets Don, the weekend hippy: he wants to know about Ronette, Darce is mentioned. He wants to know about Ronette. Darce is brought up Joanne’s story of Darce and the formal frat party: Darce the drunk looking for an ear, the effrontery of his forgetting Ronette’s body (27) (it’s an offence to bodies) Back at the camp: what really happened. Donny cares for Ronette. Ronette gives herself to him. Back in coffee shop: Joanne figures out what happened. She looks at him as though he’s a talking dog or rock. The final moment: Joanne contemplates telling Don but decides not to: sex has changed; that was a story from a bygone era. If she told him, it would start another story, and she likes definite endings (30). That was a 50s story. When sex was deep dark and forbidden. This is a completely different era where sex is just normal. That’s why she doesn’t tell him. She likes endings and telling him would not be an ending, it would be a new beginning. Fells envy – if she tells Don, he will go back to Ronette and Ronette will have a child and a man, and Joanne has nobody. this would make her jealous. Envies love. Feels power – the power to withhold information. For Joanne everything is about her career. Not at all like Ronette. Not like Donny. His heart has been touched. Maybe it’s a loyalty sisterhood feeling. This is Ronettes business to share. January 20, 2017 “True Trash” Margaret Atwood Abortion and adoption back then. 60s brought birth control, hippies, free love, change. Diffident – the opposite of confident. Joanne was diffident about sex. She is jealous of Ronette who is confident. Has Joanne pursued her ambitions by the end of the story?? How has it gone for her? She does go to university. She no longer wore white bucks, no longer sang songs. She wore turtlenecks and drank beer and a lot of coffee. Don is focused on Joanne’s legs (the male gaze) Joanne doesn’t blame anyone. January 23, 2017 Marilyn Dumont. Shame of indigenous people. Pemmican eaters. The miserable halfbreeds. The pemmican eaters. Related to Gabriel Dumont. Metis. Lac St. Anne pilgrimage. Arugaru stories (Rugaru – werewolf) Michief language. Where did the buffalo come from where do they go to? deep curves in earth or deep water. Readily available high protein food that didn’t perish. Worked for the men who would row for 12 days, didn’t want to stop rowing to go hunt. (pemmican) January 25, 2017 Research Paper Use old class schedule. Have a good title that introduces your argument. Don’t title it “research paper.” One tab is 5 spaces No separate page for works cited. Just double space after text, and start works cited. No comma between author and page number. “quote” (Zinn 357). Don’t repeat the name Zinn Long quotations are four lines or more, indent, no quotation marks. (like its own paragraph). Use square brackets when changing a quotation. (try to avoid this) Ellipsis ( . . .) words left out in quotation. Don’t put them at the end or the beginning, only in the middle. Four dots when you leave out more than a sentence. (three dots is like ellipsis; four dots are like elipsees) Works cited should be alphabetical A quotation in a quotation. You say where you found it. (Qtd. In Adler 166) Quotation marks for part of a text (story, song) Title of complete text is italics. (book, CD) Pp if you quote more than one page. P for one page. January 27, 2017 Half-Breed research paper. ENGLISH 103: RESEARCH ESSAY TOPICS (30%): Approximately 1250 words (200 more or less); Due Feb. 17 Please write a well-structured literary analysis using research. Use MLA format and documentation style, as outlined in the handout on MLA 2016 changes. Use the PowerPoint on the university essay of textual analysis in order to structure your essay. Choose one of the following topics. In both topics, use Janice Acoose’s chapter on Halfbreed as your first secondary source (Halfbreed itself, the text under study, is your primary source: it too must be listed among your Works Cited). Please use two other secondary sources to complete your research on the novel. 1. Write an analysis of the character of the protagonist or heroine, Maria Campbell, considering how she demonstrates strength of character: after succumbing to internalized colonization or self-hate due to historical trauma, she drops the colonial security blanket of inferiority and shame, becoming a confident Metis woman. 2. Write an analysis of the character of Maria’s mentor, Cheechum, her great grandmother. Consider Cheechum’s ability to resist colonial racism and to maintain her cultural identity. Please contrast Cheechum’s strengths with the different strengths of Grannie Campbell, Qua- Chich, Grannie Dubuque, and Maria’s mother. Topics are on females. Looking for literary criticism on our topic. On females in the novel We have a sample of someone’s essay and works cited from last semester. (https://learn.macewan.ca/bbcswebdav/pid-1334025-dt-content-rid- 4043544_1/courses/004813-01-2171-1-AS01- 10507/sample%20english%20research%20paper%20in%20MLA.pdf ) Macewan Portal > Sign in > Click library > library website > search bar > Halfbreed Maria Campbell > search > 72 sources > look for titles on gender, being a female, being a mother, being metis, anything feminist. find academic journals. Or a book. Data base, go to MLA international bibliography Show that you comprehend the argument of the writing. You are not just plucking out a quote, without understanding. The quote gets used awkwardly. Using MLA is like showing up to work on time. Marias strength: key terms • internalized colonization: colonized accept the colonizers view of them as inferior/ colonizers superior • historical trauma: the trauma of being colonized: destroys the connection to land, culture, language, kinship, family, self • colonial security blanket: handouts destroy identity, and the destroyed person is given a blanket to hide shame. • Becoming a confident metis woman: getting beyond self- hate, shame, and bitterness, resisting colonization and recovering cultural identity as a metis woman. Maria Campbell is coming April 5 .h The idea of ‘divide and conquer’ put the different metis against each other. Dispossession of Land: • “terra nullius” – nobody’s land • homesteads reclaimed, a generation “completely beaten” (8) o they’re in the way (the Indians) • no land, no hope: alcoholism and gender violence (9) • “half people” to Indians (25) • Chiefs under col, Rule: no voice (26) (paragraph) • Resistance: fat priest kicked out by dad (29-30) • Racism of town (36-7) • White men in Metis camp (38) Metis versus Indian. Metis are independent and rebellious, say what they mean, fight, forgive, forget. January 30, 2017 “Halfbreed” Maria Campbell more Dispossession of Land. - resistance. Fat priest kicked out by dad. He expects a good Sunday dinner even though the family is poor. Maria hates him. He robs what little food they have. Says the kids can’t eat the strawberries in the church yard. The kids set up rabbit wire and trip him. - the racism of the town. They were cursed at. They would get drunk, go back to their camp, and white men would come along. There would be fights. (page 36-37) internal colonization. The colonized people accepting the view of themselves as lesser. They had their heads down. Talks about Cheechum, and the girl, and their strength. Hope Choked to Death: • Mixed school: inside joke- int. col. (48), racist teasing (50) o They thought we were handicapped so we decided to really act like we were. • Cheechum on int. col. (50-51) • Sold out dad for chocolate bar (60); the law/poverty (61) o His hiding spot for the meat and whiskey. • Uncle jeans death and Mounties (68-9) • CCF (70-71), Dief (71) o Flamboyant, a colorful speaker, helped people for no charge, Dief was a hero. Became prime minister. 1960 formed first right, the year indigenous people got to vote. Dief was a human rights person. • Raw hope (73-74); hope dies (75)/ Cheechum says “it will come” (76-77) o Raw hope was a memoir. It was close to her life. Her dad lost hope. He hit Cheechum and it was the last straw o The divide and conquer. (76-77) the government jobs. o Lateral violence. The term that came from colonialism • Mom dies (77); church and funeral services (78-9) • Mom: a quiet strength (80) February 1, 2017 Guest lecture. “No Bikini” by Ivan Coyote - Our own expectations on first encounter with the text - Processes of learning through the text - Altered ways of understanding the text in juxtaposition with the film versions Reflecting on the processes of (self) representation. What did we expect based on the title “no bikini”? - The title didn’t give me a lot to think about. Mixed with the front picture, it made me curious, I thought it looked and sounded as though someone had lost their bikini, it looked as though it was missing. I expected a story on a girl who had lost her bikini, or her top, and had been left feeling naked. - The first line left a fight for identity. Self-acceptance. - Expectations shape the way we read and look at the text. What are we bringing to our reading practice? Ivan Coyote: - Fought for gender equality. Gender identity. - “Ivan often grapples with the complex and intensely personal issues of gender identity in their work, as we as…” Social construction of gender - what is understood as ‘normal’ or ‘natural’ for a particular gender changes by cultural and historical epoch - the messages we get about ‘normal’ gendered behavior come from our culture, not from our biology - this was of understanding gender is known as social constructionism - gender has a set of norms and expectations. - The colored hat people get from the hospital right when they’re born. What’s happening in the text? Select passages from the text that tell us something about the following: - Voice/point of view “I had a sex change once when I was 6 years old” - Tone “I was an accomplished tomboy by this time, so I was used to hating my clothes” “(boys here girls there) it was that simple, and it only got easier after the first day” straightforward. Not a lot of emotional investment. - Context – narrator speaking about an experience from the future, about the past. - Content in relation to the social constructedness of gender - Very slight humor. “I was an accomplished tomboy by that point” - “it didn’t even feel like a crime” - a mature voice reflecting on a child’s experience. - Trying to get across the child’s point of view. - I couldn’t be trusted with a bikini, not then and not now. Reflecting on the experience, but there was no finite solution. First encounter with the film version https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZjXscnwFU no bikini by trayg95 - How is this different from the original text version? - What to the differences do to your interpretation of the text? February 3, 2017 Mom dies and the church funeral service (77-79). Went to the Anglican church Resisting colonial authority She fails to resist when the officers come and offer her chocolate (60) The long decline: - Dad takes job 25 miles away; Karen 15. “keep your place” (93) - Sophie and Christmas concert: self-hate, int. col. (102-103) hating your own people. - Dad can’t marry Sarah (119); His heart tells him he can’t. he doesn’t love her. Hollywood stereotypes. (111) The movie that paints the Indians as buffoons, she leaves disgusted. - Smoky: wakes her emotionally (115) hates and loves him, because she can see his future. Drinking and a big Indian family. Wants to choose a different way of life than the one she was born into. Her way of life is oppressive. (117) marries Darrel to save family (120) Darrel beaten by smoky, beats Maria, phones welfare, family taken (122-3) (lateral violence) violence done to the family leads to violence within the family. Self-hate taught by the system. - With Chinese family, starts drinking and partying int. col (129) “I was being blamed for it anyways I might as well do it” more internal colonization. This only brought more self- hate. - Int. col. False promise of Van (131)/ the people (131-2) (dissociation) such wealth, it’s a place where everyone must be happy. She was wrong. The people she sees are clued out. Look like they are no longer in their own bodies. Dispossessed. Dispossessed by the colonial system. No longer in control of their lives. Not in control of yourself because you have suffered. (dissociation) - Pills (136), heroine (137); Nabigon medicine wheel; breakdown (163) (teacher thinks it’s a very good paragraph – 136) - She feels she will have her mental health if she can keep the family. Eventually she breaks down. Ignoring the colonial context. Blaming the victim for being a victim. “That’s the way they are” that’s the way they are because that’s the way the government makes them. - Respect the opposing argument “I can see how people would think that this is just the way they are” Hitting Bottom - Shawn: love cut short (150) - Being a white man’s Indian – internal colonization (155) – the security blanket. When you go to get handouts you have to look poor and hopeless. They give you that blanket to hide your shame. - On “our men” (168) our men have gone into violence against women and blaming women. - Tree stump of hope (171) the burnt tree stump, it’s there and it can regrow and it represents hope. - Nightmare (172-3) Cheechum dies, the people are acting way worse than before. The men and women are on the streets drunk. Fighting. It’s “like a nightmare” - Smoky’s bitterness (174) smoky has white women living with him “at least we can marry white and feel that we’ve moved up in the world” Hope for the future for change - She’s no longer the idealistic shiny eyed young woman. We might not come together unified because we love each other, but because we need each other. (184) - She gets back together with the trucker David. And has lots of kids. Gets to keep them all. - Meets activists February 6, 2017 Acoose’s chapter on Halfbreed. Politically she inspired other writers A political story Says it is fictional. How much is changed, what’s real and what’s not? Colonial domicide (homicide is murder) domicide comes from domicile which means home. Domicide is the murder of the home. The deliberate destruction of the home that follows a deliberate attack on the home. Colonialism attacks homes. The joy of being in a family. Even under very difficult circumstances. The resistance to the family breaking, and the family breaking, and the aftermath. How is this a political fact Look at historical context Emotional February 8, 2016 Cheechum and others - On internal colonization (50-1) – “evil spirit jumping up and down”; flogged C publicly, was killed, C built cabin, fired shots over RCMP (10) - Grannie Campbell, Dad’s mom, worked hard at cleaning brush (12); delivered settlers’ babies - Mom beautiful, quiet, gently (13), loved books (14), went into convent at 5 (15), Maria born on trapline in April 1940, married 6 months later (15), dies – a “pillar of strength” (80) they never noticed how much she did until she was gone. - C never slept on a bed or ate off a table (16) - C: food for little people (18); second sight sad (19) - Qua Chich: Dads aunt, his mom’s sister: married big John at 16, became Sandy Lake Cree (Indian Act – patriarchal) (20) - Marias vision of her mother’s death - Qua Chich: Big John dies in flu of 1918; never remarries, always wears black, rich, visited poor halfbreeds spring and fall in “Bennet Buggy” (20) - C: WWII “not our business” (22); “always walk proud” (37) - Granny Dubuque, mom’s mom: wealthy, bought gifts – res. School account typical (47); visits at Xmas, noisy, great storyteller, story of spoiled girl (91-2) - C: teachings (82); leaves at 96 (84); on men (97); find “something better” (98); on handouts and “blanket of shame” (159); on learning the hard way (175); 1966: dies, never surrendered – need each other (184) - Residential schools: central to Canadian history, racist relationship between the white and non-white. Never enough funding for these schools. Missionaries teach for free, never properly educated teachers. They were educated to be servants of white folks. - Absent referent? Binary? Know these terms. Duality? (one culture is superior to the other) - Cheechum was a mentor to Maria. An informal teacher, goes through life with you and offers good advice, like a guide. (82). To see beauty in all things. - The battle between good and evil. - Your ability to do for yourself. Maria starts taking meaningful jobs that are good for her. - Maria doesn’t live in the moment? February 10, 2017 Helsinki English studies He searched Halfbreed Maria Campbell interpretation Looking for 3 journal articles Scholar.google.com Halfbreed=primary text Janice acoose is one source We are doing textual analysis Joining a community of scholars in looking at Halfbreed. Recognize someone who disagrees with you, go on to say however Respect the opposition. Critical terms: - Internalized colonialism: telling them you are inferior, they hear it and they believe it. It brings self-hate o Divide and conquer o Giving the treaty Indians land and not the metis, created a divide - Colonial security blanket: the source is the Halfbreed book. The shame that comes from taking handouts. Page 159. When the government gives you something they take all you have in return. The schools and churches are all made by this government. Everyone wears this blanket in their own way. Come out from your blanket to face the ugly reality. o Maria has always been a fighter. Animalistic, fight or flight when in conflict. The parents of the two boys who hide outside, Maria fights for them. o When the home is broken, Maria goes downhill. C o Maria shows strength because she survives all of these things. What are the evidence that she survived? Finds a good job, won’t take handouts. Keeps control of her kids and settles down with David. - Absent referent: involved blaming the victim. We always see the victim, not the perpetrator. We notice they all have something in common. If we saw all the rapists, we would probably notice they were all white when. Like people notice the victims are always indigenous women - Colonial domicide: intentional destruction of the home. February 13, 2017 Required: - 3 secondary sources: scholarly articles or chapters (you can use additional sources like the Nabigon medicine wheel but they will be extra on top of the 3 secondary sources) - essay structure. Use the PowerPoint! He will be looking for it. (the university level textual analysis essay) - MLA format documentation Key terms: - Dissociation: disconnected from yourself. The people on the streets in Vancouver. Losing
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