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Lecture 4

PSYC 104 Lecture 4: Psych 104 Chapter 5 &6 Notes for 3rd Midterm

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PSYC 104
Sean Rogers

1 Third Midterm 26.10.2016 Chapter 5 Consciousness Understanding Biological Rhythms • Consciousness o Awareness of oneself and the environment • Biological Rhythms o A periodic, more or less regular fluctuation in a biological system; may or may not have psychological implications • Entrainment o Biological rhythms are synchronized with external events such as changes in clock time, temperature, and daylight Endogenous Biological Rhythms • Circadian Rhythms o Occur about every 24 hours o Example; the sleep- wake cycle • Infradian Rhythms o Occur less often than once a day o Examples include birds migrating, bears hibernating • Ultradian Rhythms o Occurs more frequently than once a day, about every 90 min o Examples include stomach contractions and hormone levels • Circadian Rhythms o Occur in plants, animals and people o To study endogenous circadian rhythms, scientists isolate volunteers from time cues o Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) ▪ When is this is activated in the morning it tells you to wake up ▪ Located in the Hypothalamus because it is located next to the pituitary gland ▪ The mechanism is the release of glutamate then activates the SCN • Makes sense that it is glutamate because it is the main excitatory • For that reason it is important when we wake up we should get into the light o That is why looking at a blue light (phone) right before bed – because the blue light is what resets the release of glutamate • When Internal Clocks are Out of Sync o Internal desynchronization 2 Third Midterm ▪ A state when biological rhythms are not in phase with one another • Long term desynchronisation has negative health affect ▪ Circadian rhythms are influenced by changes in routine • Illness, stress, fatigue, excitement, drugs and mealtimes o Jet lag ▪ Oral melatonin to reset circadian rhythm ▪ Sunlight exposure o Nightshift work ▪ Forward vs. backward shift changes • Adjust to shift changes that are forward easier ▪ Shift to Daylight Saving (spring) leads to a temporary increase in accidental deaths (Coren, 1966) • Sleep • Why we Sleep o The exact function of sleep is uncertain but sleep appears to provide time for: ▪ The body to eliminate waste products from muscles ▪ Repair cells • When you sleep you release 80% of growth hormones ▪ Strengthen the immune system, and ▪ Recover abilities lost during the day • Like neurotransmitters and hormones replenished • Sleep o Awake/alert = Beta Waves (very actives) o Stages of Sleep (each stage is about 90 minutes per cycles. So an 8 hour sleep is several cycles) ▪ Stage 1 • Theta waves • Lightly asleep when you first fall asleep • Extremely easy to wake up • Still slightly conscious • If you saw someone in this stage they could be fake sleeping ▪ Stage 2 • Sleep spindles o the rapid activity • k complexes o the slower wave activity following the sleep spindles • Breathing and heart rate are slower • Harder to wake up 3 Third Midterm o But still relatively easier to wake up ▪ Stage 3 • Delta waves o Large slow waves • Not much notice difference from stage two o Maybe deeper breathing • Can wake them up but will take a lot of effort ▪ Stage 4 • Deep Sleep • Most of the wave activity is Delta Wave • Extremely difficult to wake up ▪ REM • Dreams • brainwave activity is the identical if you are asleep and doing something • High arousal o There are breathing harder • REM means rapid eye movement  eyes are moving o A typical nights sleep ▪ Follows the order of stages ▪ Believe that the restore things happen prominently during REM o REM sleep ▪ Characteristics • REM dreams are longer, more detailed and more ‘coherent’ than non- REM (NREM) dreams o Tend to have a narrative o More fantasy based • Physiological arousal increases o Heart rate rises o Breathing harder o Sexual arousal • REM sleep Paralysis o Paradoxical sleep o Your body is paralysed even though your body is acting like you are running • May be involved in memory consolidation • Sleep Deprivation and Disorders o Sleep deprivation leads to decreases in physical and mental functioning ▪ Mood 4 Third Midterm • Is the area that is the affect the most ▪ Cognitive Performance • Your ability to plan, to reason and self control is not functioning o Not as reduced as Mood ▪ Physical performance • Your ability to run is reduced o Not as reduced as cognitive performance 28.10.2016 Sleep deprivation and Disorders • Sleep deprivation leads to decreases in physical and mental functioning o Short term sleep deprivation  up to 45 hours without sleep o Long term sleep deprivation  more than 45 hours without sleep ▪ Most people experience hallucinations and maybe even delusions o Partial deprivation ▪ No more than 5 hours of sleep/night for 1 or more nights (not getting as much sleep as you need) ▪ 66% of Canadians are Partial sleep deprivation ▪ Sleep debt  go through the sleep cycles faster and then enter REM cycle sooner and for longer • Sleep Disorders  disorder if it is chronic and causes you concern (it is normal to experiences these things one in a while o Insomnia: ▪ Chronic difficulty in falling asleep ▪ Takes longer 40 minutes or longer to fall asleep all the time. ▪ Or fall asleep right away and then wake up in the middle of the night and toss and turn for hours • 9% -15 % of people have insomnia during some part of their life ▪ Sleeping pills or sleep hygiene (this is the preferred method) for treatment ▪ No specific physical pereception o Narcolepsy: ▪ Sudden, uncontrollable sleep attacks • REM sleep intrudes into waking state o Believed this because the people quickly go into REM cycle • Cataplexy- Wakeful ‘REM sleep paralysis” o Cataplexy  when you are awake but REM sleep paralysis ▪ Awake but can’t move ▪ And frequently dream while awake 5 Third Midterm • This is the exact thing that is said with alien phenomena (halluciention ) ▪ Treated with stimulate steroids • The higher the level of stress the more easier it is to fall into Narcolepsy ▪ Genetic • Believed to have one physical perception  not sure what it is o Sleep apnea: ▪ Breathing stops and restarts during sleep • Between 2 – 20% deal with sleep apnea ▪ Generally this is there is too much weight by the ephogutas (so breathing is blocked) ▪ Symptoms  explosive snoring • Can wake yourself up ▪ Treatment: surgery for excess tissue or mask for keeping air pressure normal o Sleepwalking: ▪ Nerve messages causing REM sleep paralysis are ineffective • Not dangerous to wake (but takes time) ▪ Danger of sleep walking is in the activity that you do… ▪ Far more likely to sleep walk in childhood frequent is less than 5% • Adults who frequently sleep walk – sleep walked as children o Nightmares: ▪ Bad dreams o Night terrors ▪ Wake up screaming, full flight or flight response (high SNS arousal) ▪ DO NOT EVEN DREAMS WHATEVER • Most common in stages 3 &4 • Best treatment is NOT to wait for child to outgrow (unless it only occurs a couple times a night) o Wake child up before it typically occurs (only do this if it is comes frequently) ▪ People who have night terrors never realise that they are having one Exploring Dream World o Could stuff all of these things into two boxes ▪ Phenomenon ▪ Epiphenomenon • Dreams as unconscious wishes 6 Third Midterm o Freud concluded that dreams provide insight into our unconscious o Manifest content ▪ Includes aspects of the dream we consciously experience • The story we remember o Latent content ▪ Includes unconscious wishes and thoughts symbolized in the dream o To understand a dream we must distinguish manifest content from latent content ▪ Dream symbols are unique to the dreamer • Dreams as efforts to deal with problems • things into two boxes • Dreams as a by- product of mental housekeeping • Dreams as thinking • Dreams as interpreted brain activity 31.10.2016 • Dreams as interpreted Brain Activity • Activation Synthesis Theory o Your brain is twitching as you sleep and you interpret the twitches ▪ While you sleep neurons fire for no reason • Dreams: Efforts to deal with problems o Dreams may reflect ongoing conscious issues such as concerns over relationships, work, sex or health ▪ example college students and testing o your dreams change over time ▪ More often you will have negative dreams • it is a safe way to face your fears o Reflects what we deal with in our lives o Males and females have more similar dream content as the lives and concerns of the two sexes have become more similar • Dreams a By- Product of Mental Housekeeping o Unnecessary neural connections in the brain are eliminated and important ones are strengthened o The brain divides new information into ‘wanted’ and the ‘unwanted’ o What we recall as dreams are only brief snippets from scanning and sorting that occurs during REM sleep ▪ Learn a new karate move that pattern of neuron activity will be repeated during the night Altered states of Consciousness  a qualative difference in our conscious awareness (seeing and interacting with things that don’t actually exist) ▪ Hallucinations o Perceptual experiences in the absence of external stimuli o Neural activity with no external source 7 Third Midterm o 10-39% of people have experience one or more o Imagination interpreted as real? o Hynogod hallucination one that happens while you fall asleep (see or hear or experience something that hasn’t actually occur) ▪ Out of body Experiences (OBE’s) o Sense of your consciousness leaving your body o Floating above, observing o Intentionally produced (Astral Projection) o 25% post secondary students o 10% of people o High level of stress and fantasy proneness? ▪ Near Death Experiences (NDE’s) o Dark tunnel, bright light, experience of heaven or hell, life review… o Culturally influenced – over riding belief about life after death is experience o 6 to 33% of people who have been close to death o may be created by oxygen deprivation, some drugs, electrical stimulation of the temporal lobes ( life r
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