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Lecture 5

PSYC 104 Lecture 5: Chapter 7 & 11 Notes for Final

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MacEwan University
PSYC 104
Sean Rogers

1 :16.11.2016 Chapter 7 Memory Three systems of memory o Sensory Memory ▪ A memory system that momentarily preserves extremely accurate images of sensory information ▪ Sensory specific • Iconic – Vision (1 sec) • Echoic – hearing (5-10 sec) ▪ Information that is not quickly passed to short-term memory is gone forever ▪ Pattern Recognition • The identification of a stimulus on the basis of information already contained in long-term memory o Short term Memory ▪ A limited capacity memory system involved in the retention of information (7 +/- 2 chunks) for brief periods ▪ It is also used to hold information retrieved from long-term memory for temporary use • 5-20 seconds ▪ Decay • Gradual loss of the information o Fades away ▪ Interference • Memories get in the way of each other • Retroactive – new hinders old • Proactive – old hinders new ▪ Short-term (working) Memory • Chunking • Rehearsal o Maintenance ▪ Repeating the information to maintain it • Elephant, glass; elephant, glass; elephant, glass etc.… o Elaborative ▪ Link information in some meaningful way ▪ Depth of processing • More meaningful and personal is more memorable o Visual o Phonological o Semantic o 18.11.2016 Amon Amarth (know this name of the band) Bonus question on final 2 o Long term memory ▪ VAST capacity • Virtually unlimited o Capacity is HUGE o No one really hits a point where they can’t remember anything ▪ Long lasting • Decades of storage • Permastore o Some facts in your long term memory you will always remember (often intimate knowledge  your name, first pet etc o The basic rule in long term memory is use it or lose it o These three effects happen when you study in bulk ▪ Primacy effect – tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list better than those later in the list ▪ Recency effect – tendency to remember words at the end of a list better than those earlier in the list ▪ Von Restorff effect – tendency to remember distinctive stimuli • Unusual effects that stood out are easier to remember • Long term o Explicit ▪ Events that you can express or talk about. Also it takes effort • Semantic Memory Is Facts o Most of your education is increasing your sematic memory. o What you had this morning bagel and cream cheese • Episodic o The story of your acts o Telling the story of making your bagel and why it ws so good o Implicit Memory ▪ We aren’t aware of them being learned • Procedural  Skills (Remember how to ride a bike, how to open a door. • Priming  king Priming is that the fact that when you think of royalty you are more likely to think of king rather than kill • Conditioning  Classical conditioning Amon Amarth (know this name of the band) Bonus question on final 3 • Habituation  if you are exposed to a stimuli repeatedly you will respond less to it o Prof firing a pistol every class the first time we will jump but eventually we won’t really care • Three Processes of memory (think of a library) o Encoding ▪ New books assigned a number. For a human encoding the fact has to be transfer into some form of biological state for us to remember Pattern of neurons that relate to Edmonton so when asked whats the capita l of Alberta you have a pattern of neurons that lights up as Edmonton o Storage ▪ Putting the book on the self so it will stay there o Retrieval ▪ Go through your memory and find the information and pull it out and make use of it. Retrieval error is when you have the tip of the tongue phenomenon • Mnemonics (official word of memory aids) o Memory aids o PEGWORD ▪ First you memorise a poem, simple, uses numbers use the words to peg and hang things on it • Gives you and image and helps you remember ▪ One is a bun, two is a shoe, … o METHOD OF LOCI ▪ Sherlock’s mind palace ▪ Have a place in your mind that you know very very well and put places in certain places. And then make images that relate to your house ▪ As you walk through your house you see the images. ▪ Imagine a location… o KEYWORD ▪ Image to associate • Pain= Bread (French) • Cingulate cortex is named after a swan (think of a swan) o Pegword usually work the best • Long-term Memory o Schemas ▪ Organized mental model • We tend to think of perfect examples ▪ Provides a frame of reference for interpreting new situations ▪ Helps simplify, but may lead to memory distortions Amon Amarth (know this name of the band) Bonus question on final 4 • Remember 10 birthday pony ride and drunk uncle  fill in the rest the details for birthday • EXPECTATIONS and experiences frame memory o War of the ghost study  if told a really unusual story and got told to tell it multiple times, each time you will add more details that make more sense for you o Impact of prejudicial schemas  had a drawing of white man holding a black man by the front of his shirt threatening him with a razor ▪ 80% would say that the black man was threating the white man ▪ Memory changed • Rape victim identified the man on the lefts as her attacker • She was confident he was the one who raped her • He spent 11 years in prison for a crime committed by the man on the right • Measuring memory o Recall – generating previously remembered information ▪ Open ended question there is no hints ▪ You have to remember what it is and reproduce that information o Recognition- selecting previously remembered information from an array of option ▪ Multiple choice o Relearning – ‘method of savings’ ▪ How much more quickly we reacquire something learned before • Being taught the same 20 words and keep going tell you get them 100% • It takes far less time to relearn o Tip of the Tongue phenomenon ▪ It’s in there somewhere… • Different from not known o Means we know the accuracy of our memory • Retrieval failure 21.11.2016 o Encoding specificity (Tulving) ▪ Memory is enhanced when conditions present during retrieval match those present during encoding (when trying to learn something and when you are trying to retrieve it.) • Context-dependent memory(the external environment): Easier to remember things when context of retrieval matches context of learning o Ex. In the same learning environment Amon Amarth (know this name of the band) Bonus question on final 5 o In the living room want tea go to the kitchen forget why you came go back to living room remember you wanted tea • State- dependent memory (internal): Better memory when retrieval internal state matches learning one o if you have a mild headache when you are studying it will be easier to remember what you were studying if you have a mild headache o Mood dependant learning ▪ Sad= easier to remember unpleasant events ▪ Happy= easier to remember pleasant events ▪ 1 year anniversary going for dinner on the way there they get into a big fight during dinner they feel like the whole relationship is a big flop but if they arrive to dinner in a good mood they will feel like the relationship is wonderful Biology of Memory • Neural basis of memory o Lashey and the Engram ▪ Engram: physical trace of each memory ▪ Ran rats through maze, lesioned brains, retested rats • More brain lesioned = worse performance • No matter what part of brain was removes, some memory was retained o Different aspects of a memory are stored in different places ▪ Assemblies: the engram is stored in organized groups of neurons in the brain • Neurons become connected, one activates the next • 1920 o Karl Lashley’s unsuccessful search for a single engram (physical trace of memory in the brain) ▪ Rats in maze: more brain tissue removed= worse memory ▪ Location of damage didn’t seem to matter • 1949 o Donald Hebb – engram is located in assemblies of neurons ▪ Neurons that ‘fire together, wire together’ • Long- term potentiation o LTP is a long lasting strengthening of connections between neurons after repeated activation o Neurons that fire together wire together Amon Amarth (know this name of the band) Bonus question on final 6 • LTP o Primarily occurs  Hippocampus, amygdala and neocortex o Cells are recorded at baseline (how do they respond to ‘normal’ stimuli) o Strong stimulus applied, record response o Response is much stronger • LTP o Potentiation: EPSP and IPSP o Glutamate: primary NT involved in LTP o Doogie mouse: more NMDA receptors ▪ Learns faster than other mice • Long-term potentiation (LTP) – strengthening of connections among neurons due to simultaneous stimulation o Neurons in the hippocampus, amygdala, and cortex show a long-term enhanced response (‘potentiation’) following certain stimulation (ex. After a learning episode, such as Pavlovian fear conditions) o Glutamate plays a role • Long term Depression o Weakening of connections between neurons after little activation o Helps balance out LTP ▪ There is a theoretical maximum amount of LTP that could occur • Brain Areas involved in Memory • Types of Amnesia o Explicit (Things you can explain) and implicit memory (remember how to do things) are stored in different parts of the brain o Retrograde ▪ Loss of past memories before onset amnesia ▪ Generalised amnesia (loss of all past memories, “Hollywood amnesia”) is very rare • Lose memories of the past o Anterograde ▪ Inability to form new memories since onset of amnesia ▪ Far more common • Can’t form new memories • Case studies of Amnesia o H.M. ▪ Suffered from epilepsy; had large potion of ▪ Mirror drawing task: often very difficult when people first try it • H.M. showed improvement after practicing even though he had no recollection of actually doing this task • Evidence for distinction between implicit and explicit ▪ Resulted in sever anterograde amnesia and some retrograde amnesia Amon Amarth (know this name of the band) Bonus question on final 7 ▪ Imaging showed that much of his hippocampus and amygdala were damaged o Clive Wearing ▪ Herpes virus destroyed some of his brain, including hippocampus ▪ Severe anterograde amnesia like H.M. ▪ Also has implicit memory intact • Priming effects (i.e. wife says St. Mary’s and he replies with Paddington) • Emotional Memory o Painful memories can be elicited by certain stimuli (ex. Smells) o Amygdala interacts with hippocampus to create emotional memories ▪ S.M. had amygdala damage and could remember facts about fear producing experience but not fear itself ▪ W.S. had hippocampal damage and could not remember any specific details, but could remember fear o A study demonstrated that emotional memory is very powerful by telling groups 2 stories, one with emotional components, and one without ▪ Those that were told emotional story, recalled part of story with trauma better ▪ Those without emotional component recalled all the details at the same rate o Similar experiment showed effects of propranolol (drug that blocks effects of adrenaline, used for high blood pressure) ▪ Those give drug were worse at recall for emotional details. • Ethical issues • Memory Deterioration o Memory loss is a usual component of aging ▪ How much is normal> o Alzheimer’s disease causes 50-60% of dementias ▪ Risk increases as you get older ▪ Hallmark physiological signs: senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles ▪ Plaques and tangles contribute to loss of synapses; death of cells in cortex and hippocampus ▪ Along with synapse loss, there is decreased ACh (acetylcholine) • Drugs for Alzheimer’s meant to increase Ach • Other drugs decrease glutamate (toxic in high doses) o No cure, drugs only slow progression o Can it be prevented? ▪ Physical activity ▪ People who are highly educated and intellectually active • Correlation o Infantile Amon Amarth (know this name of the band) Bonus question on final 8 ▪ People typically don’t have memories of events occurring before age 4 ▪ Hippocampal development • Complete around age 2 ▪ Lack of sense of self • 15 month to 2 years 23.11.2016 Memory Development • At what age do we begin to form memories? o Fatal memory ▪ Habituation to novel stimuli begins at 32 weeks in utero o Infant Implicit memory ▪ Respond to operant conditioning at 2 months • 2 months a lasts a few days • 6 months a lasts few weeks • How does memory changes as we grow? o See the biggest memory in Short term memory o Children’s Short term memory increases in span ▪ 3 at 3 years ▪ 6 at 9 years ▪ 7 at 12 years • Memory span increases o Biological maturation (CNS continues to develop from birth to 24) o Improved conceptual understanding ▪ Better ability to find meaning and chunk • Increases the amount of information able to maintain o Enhanced meta-memory skills (aware what our memory is) ▪ Assess when effort is needed ▪ Over confidence becomes accurate assessment (preschoolers believe that they have a perfect memory once in school they realise that they have to do effort to memorise) o Children’s Memory increases in span (STM) o Increased sophistication and use of memory strategies ▪ Repetition ▪ Mnemonics • Earliest one is touching everything on the table to remember • As you become older your mnemonics become more strategic How accurate is memory  Should we be confident we remember what happened? • The eyewitness on Trial o Eyewitnesses are not always reliable Amon Amarth (know this name of the band) Bonus question on final 9 ▪ Cross race identification ▪ Question wording • How you ask a question changes how they respond • Crashed versus hit ▪ Misleading information ▪ Often the more you get questioned about something you insert changes • In our own autobiographical memory we often change things to make ourselves look better • Children’s Testimony o Under what conditions are children more suggestible? ▪ Being very young  the more young they are the more unreliable they are ▪ When interviewers’ expectations are clear • Asking if an adult ever touched them… even if the adult never did the child may say yes.. because they feel pressured to ▪ When other children’s memories for events are accessible • Garbage can on fire… kids all say that Billy did it even though Billy was no were near it … all children well say that Billy did it. • Once the children say that saw it ,, it becomes a real memory • The manufacture of Memory o Memory is the capacity to retain and retrieve information o Recovering a memory is not playing a videotape o Memory is a reconstructive process ▪ Remembering few facts and then using your schemas to fill in the rest  that becomes your new memory • Flashbulb memory o Emotional memories that are so vivid we believe we can recall them in great detail ▪ Often special, emotional memories we feel like we can remember every detail about them  often marriage, birth etc. o Flashbulb memories are no more accurate ▪ We have much greater CONFIDENCE in their accuracy • Source Monitoring I know where I learnt this fact (helps you remember to know if something happened directly to you or told about) o Source amnesia ▪ The inability to distinguish what you originally experienced from what you heard or were told later about an event (I did that… when they did not) ▪ Cannot distinguish the Source Amon Amarth (know this name of the band) Bonus question on final 10 • Self • Other ▪ Cryptomnesia • Forgetting that ‘our’ idea was actually someone else’s o Ex. Artists saying and believing that their tune was completely original however it was somebody else’s • The conditions of Confabulation (broadly subscribe to these amnesia facts) o Confabulation ▪ Confusion of an event that happened to someone else with one that happened to you ▪ Or a belief that you remember something when it never actually happened • Ex. Remembering being born ▪ Once you start to do this you Stronger believe this even if it is logically impossible o Confabulation is most likely when: ▪ You have thought or heard about the imagined event many times ▪ The image of the event contains many details (like photos) ▪ The event is easy to imagine (easy to put yourself in the picture) ▪ You focus on emotional reactions to the event rather than on what actually happened Implanting False Memories • Once you change a memory you have a stronger belief of the new memory • The Misinformation effect o The misinformation effect is the distortion of a memory by misleading post-event information ▪ “How fast was the car going…” • When it ‘smashed into’ another car  65.7 km/h • When it ‘contacted’ another car?  51.2 km/h • Implanting memories o More likely for PLAUSIBLE events ▪ Talking to your parents and get some photos, But Photoshop some information that never happened like going to Disney land and sitting on Bugs Bunny lap you make up a memory for that event and adding information o More likely for distant PAST events • The “recovered memory” Controversy o When a ‘forgotten’ memory (ex. Sexual abuse) is recovered, is it accurate? o What causes the memory to be forgotten for so long? ▪ Ordinary sources of for
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