Class Notes (809,444)
Canada (493,713)
Psychology (162)
PSYC 105 (37)
Lecture 1

PSYC 105 Lecture 1: Psychology 8-9. Notes for 1st Midterm

16 Pages
Unlock Document

MacEwan University
PSYC 105

Psych 105 6.1.2017 Chapter 8: Thinking, Reasoning and Language Thinking and Reasoning • Thinking is any mental activity or processing of information • Includes fundamental aspects of cognition, such as learning, remembering, perceiving, communicating, believing, and deciding • Our brains are cognitive misers (heuristics and such … likes to make short cuts) Heuristics • Shortcuts to increase our thinking efficiency, mental shortcuts • E.g., availability heuristic and confirmation bias • Simplifies what we attend to, minimize the information we need for decision making • Cognitive economy can serve us well, but can also lead to faulty conclusions Top-Down Processing • Streamlines cognitive functioning by utilizing preexisting knowledge • Includes use of concepts and schemas • We exert less cognitive effort over basic info, frees us up to engage in more complex reasoning Decision-Making • The process of selecting among a set of possible alternatives • Many of our daily decisions are made implicitly and based on cognitive economy • Makes sense to make bigger decisions more carefully, but overanalyzing can overwhelm us • Crucial not to follow our ‘gut’ when evaluating scientific evidence o Make sure to use a technique that is appropriate for the situation • Framing has an impact on decisions even when the underlying information relevant to these decisions is identical o 5% chance of winning vs. 95% chance of losing (optimistic approach or pessimistic approach) Problem Solving • Generating a cognitive strategy to accomplish a specific goal o Ex. Watch and learn (youtube) • We often rely on algorithms ( step by step learned procedure used to solve a problem) to solve problems o Step by step • Replacing the starter on a car, making a peanut-butter and jelly sandwich • If those don’t work, try breaking a problem down in to easier sub-problems o 1.Why has it not started? 2. Fix it • Can also attempt to draw an analogy between current and past problems o We do this a lot while studying Obstacles to Problem Solving 1.Salience of surface similarities • On the surface it looks like the same problem • Salience refers to how attention- grabbing something is… • We tend to focus our attention on the surface level (superficial) properties of a problem 2. Mental Set • This should work because this worked in the past • Ex. Studying for 3 hours and get 80% then think that if you study 5 hours you will get 100% wrong • Phenomenon of becoming stuck in a specific problem solving strategy inhibiting our ability to generate alternatives 3. Functional Fixedness • if I look at something can I use that to solve that problem. o Can you mount this candle on the wall using a box of tacks • Difficulty conceptualizing that an object typically used for one purpose can be used for another. 1 Models of mind • Thought the mind worked like a computer in the past but not now • Embodied accounts of thinking seem to better explain our thinking an reasoning abilities • Our knowledge is organized and accessed in a manner that enables us to simulate our actual experiences o  Schemas ▪ when something doesn’t fit into our schema we will notice Language • Arbitrary system of communication that combines symbols, such as words or gestural signs, in rule-based ways to create meaning o We tend to think in language Features of language • Highly practiced and automatic process • Children change language o Learn own rules and terms o Think about slang in high school keeps changing • Four levels of analysis that must coordinate o 1. Phonemes ▪ basic units of language that don’t mean anything ▪ Categories of sounds our vocal apparatus produces ▪ Probably around 100 in total • English uses 40 o 2.Morphemes ▪ Smallest unit of sounds that have meaning  arranged then rearranged (re) is the morphemes ▪ Convey information about semantics- meaning derived from words and sentences ▪ Can be full words (‘dog’) or modifiers (‘re-‘) o 3.Syntax ▪ Grammar and spelling ▪ How will you use language ▪ Real-world language rarely follows this completely ▪ Includes word order, morphological markers and sentence structure o 4.Extralinguistic information ▪ swearing at your dog because it pooped on the carpet but the dog is acting all happy because you don’t seem mad since you are using a high voice ▪ Elements of communication that aren’t part of the content of language but are critical to interpreting its meaning ▪ Facial expressions, tones of voice, previous statements by others ▪ Used to help interpret ambiguous information ▪ 80% of communication is non-verbal • Word crimes weird al Language Dialects • Variations of the same language used by groups of people from specific geographic areas, social groups or ethnic backgrounds • Use consistent syntax rules, although they may differ from ‘mainstream’ speech • ‘Where you at?’ vs ‘What are you doing’ Where and Why? • Language requires a long learning period, hefty brain power, and other disadvantages • Advantages then must be particularly useful o Communication of complex ideas o Cooridnationtes social skills Learning Language • Children begin to recognise their native language before they are born o They eventually begin to only babble in their mother tongue 2 • Babbling during first year allows babies to develop control over vocal tracts • Also developing phoneme recognition during this time Learning words • Recognize own name by 6 months comprehend words by 10-12 months • Begin to produce words around 1 year of age, with an exponential rate of increase • Tend to over- and underextend words meanings o Seeing a 4 legged animal and hairy in their home is a dog and go next door and see the dog there and not call it a dog under o Go over and see a cat and call it a dog – Overextend Syntactic Development • Refers to combining words into phrases • Start off speaking in the one-word stage, move to combining two words by two years • Can comprehend basic syntax rules before they can display them Sign Language • Type of language used by deaf communities that relies on visual communication • More than gestures, exhibits all features of spoken language • Same brain areas are involved • Developmental stages are the same in spoken and sign languages 9.1.2016 Bilingualism • The earlier the better • Usually have one dominant language, but proficient in both • Pass through same stages as monolinguists, although syntax is slowed o At first children who are multi lingual often struggle with words at first because they have two different rules to learn but then by grade 5ish they have an explosion of words and often surpass their classmates • Have heightened metalinguistic insight and tend to perform better on language tasks • Same brain areas used if second language is learned early but different areas used if learned later in development Language Deprivation • Cases like ‘Genie’ and homesigners show the influence of nature and nurture o Homesign  system of signs invented by deaf children of hearing parents who receive no language input • Not a strict critical period for language development but a sensitive period • Younger you are the better you will learn a new language (‘less is more’ theory) Theories of Language acquisition • Imitation o Suggest babies hear language used in systematic ways and learn to use language as adults use it o Doesn’t account for generative nature of language ▪ Children develop their own sense of language • Nativist o Suggests that children are born with some basic knowledge about how language works o Chomsky’s language acquisition device ▪ Social components o Many claims of this are difficult to falsify • Social pragmatics o Believe children are continuously are taking in information from their social environment o Suggests that specific aspects of the social environment structure language learning o Requires assuming that infants have insight into other’s thoughts ▪ Children probably don’t have enough insight 3 ▪ Around 6 month old babies non who to trust for about up to 5 months  social referencing  look at how mum and dad are reacting to how the are reacting to the ‘stranger’ picking them up • That is why toddlers will be shy because they don’t know how to read social cues and context yet o Example ▪ If the population of the university was isolated in 50 years the language would change and create its own slang ▪ Create own dialects • General cognitive processing o Says that ability to learn language results from general skills children apply across a variety of activities o But, children learn language better than adults, even though adults are overall better at learning things ▪ They are always watching and always learning o Specific brain areas are recruited during language 2 main areas of the brain for language • Wernicke’s area o Language comprehension area o Responsible to make sense out of these impulses ▪ What did she say and how did see say it • Tone pitch, intonation etc. • Broca’s Area o Makes language happen o If damage very hard for them to produce speech and if they can produce speech it is very hard to make sense Nonhuman Animal Communication • Animal species differ in the complexity and type of communication • Scent, visual, vocal • Most communication is geared towards mating and aggression o Honeybees and vervet monkeys Teaching Human Language • Many attempts to teach non-humans our language, with mixed results o Chimpanzees o Bonobos o African Grey Parrot • Animals doesn’t know how to use syntax and grammar o Think of how a two year old talks • Humans appear unique in our ability to use language in sophisticated ways • Humans use the same words over and over again o If teaching a person a new language is to teach the 100 most used word Linguistic Determinism • The view that we represent all thinking linguistically • Can thought exist without language? o There is a lot of evidence that we need language to think! • Studies paralyzing vocal cords and using neuroimaging support that it can Linguistic Relativity • A less radical view, where characteristics of language shape our thought processes o Language changes the way we think o Language reveals our thought process • Studies suggest language shapes some aspects of perception, memory and thought o BY using certain words it sounds more problematic too  bump vs. crash • Difficulty in separating language from cultural differences Reading • Like language, it becomes an automatic process 4 • WE often can’t turn it off, even if we want to • Say aloud the colour of the ink in these examples o It becomes a lot hard to do the right column Learning to read • We must learn four things prior to reading o 1. Writing is meaningful o 2. Writing moves in a specific direction o 3. Recognizing letters of the alphabet o 4. Printed letters correspond to specific sounds • Once those are learned, we must master two more skills to become experts o 1. How words look on the page- whole word recognition o 2. How to sound out unfamiliar words phonetic decomposition Speed Reading • the average student reads 200-300 WPM • the faster you above 400 WPM, the more your level of comprehension drops • Speed reading courses ‘work’ by making you go faster, but you don’t understand as much 1.13.2017 Chapter 9 Intelligence and IQ testing: controversy and consensus Definitional Confusion • Psychologists can’t agree on a precise definition of intelligence • Boring’s definition: “Intelligence is whatever intelligence tests measure” • Sidesteps the issue... Intelligence as Sensory Capacity • Galton’s theory that people with better senses acquire more knowledge • Research showed different sensory capacities were only weakly related to each other • Also showed that measures of sensory ability are not highly related to intelligence Intelligence as Abstract Thinking • Binet and Simon’s 1905 first intelligence test • Focused on higher mental processes – reasoning, understanding, judgment • Most now agree that intelligence is related to the capacity to understand theoretical concepts (abstract thinking) General vs Specific Abilities • Positive correlations among all items on IQ tests led to Spearman’s development of g and s • General intelligence (g) accounts for overall differences in intellect among people • Our particular skills are reflected in our specific abilities (s) Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence • Cattell and Horn theorized that “intelligence” is a mix of two capacities • Capacity to learn new ways of solving problems, or fluid intelligence • Accumulated knowledge of the world we gain over time, or crystallized intelligence Multiple Intelligences • Several theorists argue that there are entirely different domains of intellectual skill • Gardner’s “frames of mind” – ways of thinking about the world • Argued that autistic savants provided support for these different types of intelligence Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Mixed scientific reaction to this model, because it’s: • virtually impossible to falsify • not clear why certain abilities classify as intelligences, while others don’t • no good evidence that these intelligences are truly independent Triarchic Model • Sternberg theorized three largely distinct types of intelligence • Believes that having one does not ensure you have the others • Analytical intelligence is the ability to reason logically, or “book smarts” • Practical intelligence is the ability to solve real-world problems, or “street smarts” 5 • Creative intelligence is the ability to come up with novel and effective answers • Has several weaknesses • Practical intelligence is not independent of g • Causal relationship between job performance and practical intelligence • We all possess strengths and weaknesses, but they might not be as distinct as theorized Biological Bases of Intelligence • Brain volume correlates positively with measured intelligence (between 0.3 and 0.4) • Moderate correlation doesn’t explain all, and may not be directly causal • Evidence suggests cerebral cortex development is slower in gifted children • Intelligence may reflect efficiency of mental processing • Working memory is also closely related to intelligence • Playing Tetris • Persons with higher intelligence show: • quicker reaction times • less overall brain activity • Prefrontal cortex is especially active during highly ‘g-loaded’ tasks o But other areas of the brain are also important, i.e. parietal cortex ▪ Central theme: Speed of information processing is related to intelligence • Intelligence is largely inherited • You have a verbal and picture memory Testing Intelligence • Unfortunately, we can’t just ask people how smart they are o Must people think of their school grades which is not an accurate account • Self-reports only correlate 0.2 to 0.3 with objective measures of intelligence o Have to be careful not to just measure skills but actual intelligence • The double curse of incompetence and metacognitive skills Calculating IQ • The development of norms allow us to compare a person’s results on a test to others o Norms are important o Most things you do in psych are norm based • Binet’s concept of mental age led to the development of the intelligence quotient (IQ) o (Mental Age/Chronological age) x 100 = IQ • This works for children, but not adults • Modern IQ tests use a deviation IQ that eliminates age effects • Compares each person to what is normal for his or her own age group • Poor predictor of intelligence just by it’s self Eugenics Movement • Soon after IQ tests were developed, their use began to be abused • Led to worry about ‘low IQ’ in certain groups, and the eugenics movement o Davenport’s Station giving IQ test all in English so therefore a lot of people’s IQ were very low • Forcible sterilization and immigration laws were most visible impacts on society o Because of low IQ  alberta was doing this up to the 70s o An IQ test should be admitted to do were a child needs help in what area  this was not the cases then… used for own game IQ testing Today • Most commonly used IQ test for adults is the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) • Consists of 15 subtests that give 5 scores: o Overall IQ ▪ Verbal comprehension • Ability to use language ▪ Perceptual reasoning • Visual spatial abilities o Ability to play tetris and lego 6 ▪ Independent of verbal comprehension ▪ Working memory • Short term memory (30s or less) • Verbal • Holding that information in your mind and possibly processing it ▪ Processing speed • Usually determined by coding o Not all weighted equally ▪ Verbal comprehension is written the heaviest • WAIS Sample items o On which continent is France? ▪ Example of: Information Test, taps general range information o Why do people need birth certificates? ▪ Example of : Comprehension Test, tests understanding of social conventions and ability to evaluate past experience o How many hours will it take to drive 150 miles at 50 miles per hour? ▪ Example of : Arithmetic Test  tests arithmetic reason through verbal problems o How are a calculator and a typewriter alike? ▪ Example of: Similarities Test:  asks in what way certain objects or concepts are similar, measure abstract thinking • Culture- Fair IQ Tests o Consist of abstract- reasoning items that don’t depend on language o Raven’s Progressive Matrices: Which is the final pattern in this series? • That no matter where you are in the world you would be able to do the test • Relies a lot on non verbal things can administer it all without speaking ▪ This has a lot of controversy with it Post Secondary Admissions Tests • Designed to test overall competence in a specific domain or predict academic success • SAT scores correlate highly (0.7 to 0.8) with I! o Also a measure of your motivation Reliability of IQ sscores Does it do what is suppose to do each time (Reliability) • In adults, scores tend to be highly stable over long periods of time o There is a natural regression towards the mean once you have become order • Prior to age three, though, IQ tests are very unstable and poor predictors of adult I! Validity of IQ Scores • Does it measure what it is actually suppose to measure • Moderately successful at predicting grades o But because this correlation is much lower than 1.0 o Success also depends on motivation intellectual curiosity, effort and mental energy o Predict performance across wide variety of occupations and associated with health related outcomes (Health literacy) o Relationships hold up even when social class is accounted for 16.1.2017 Tale of Two Tails • Intelligence follows a bell curve distribution o Representation of a population (suppose to be equal) ▪ Average intelligence ranks from the 25% - 75% (average is actually pretty good) • If most people are average then 2% of the population will be Intellectual Disable and another 2% is Gifted Intellectual Disability • Characterized by childhood onset of low IQ (below 70) and inability to engage in adequate daily functioning o Going to have difficult learning new things 7 o Might see significant deficits in working memory, visual, learning etc. ▪ Need to give the support they need • Around 1% of North American population (mostly males) • Four Levels: mild, moderate, severe, profound • The more severe the intellectual disability, the less likely it is to run in families o Natural selection o The less severe it is easier to have coping mechanisms and it becomes less of a problem • Over 200 different causes, most common are Fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome • ADA and CHRC acts have greatly impacted lives of those with disabilities o You can’t just not hire to somebody because they have an intellectual disability Mental Giftedness • Refers to the top 2% of IQ scores o The cut off is 130 • Large portion occupy certain professions: doctors, lawyers, engineers, professors • Terman’s “Termites” showed that prodigies do not ‘burn out’ or have higher rates of mental illness o Anybody on the right side of the curve have an easier time in school… but does not mean that they have success • What makes a genius? o Genetic factors play a role, but so do practice and dedication o Intellectual brilliance with little effort is very unrealistic ▪ It still takes time to learn and make a discovery Genetic Influences on IQ • Families studies confirm that IQ runs in families o Siblings IQ correlate at 0.5, cousins at 0.15 • Twin studies show identical twin correlations of 0.7 to 0.8, fraternal of 0.3 to 0.4 • But high levels of environmental deprivation may swamp out effects of genes o Our access to education is very important! • Twins reared apart are as similar in IQ as Twins reared together • Adoption studies point to the influence of environment, but still strongly support the importance of genetic IQ Environmental Influences • Those that think IQ is fixed tend to take less academic risks, challenging themselves less o They take less risks o It is easier • Children from larger families have slightly lower IQs than children from smaller families • Amount of schooling seems to exert a causal influence on IQ o IQ is static but not very much o Learn Verbal Comprehension
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 105

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.