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Lecture 3

PSYC-223 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Executive Functions, Stroop Effect, Object Permanence

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5.3 motor development (chapter 5.3, 6 and 9 are the focus)
-motor milestones are hit at different times for different babies (supervised tummy time necessary for
being able to push them up into crawling posture)
-walking begins after standing, usually at about a year and after they use furniture for support
-evidence of experience: tribes in Uganda have accelerated motor development; by being carried in sling
the babies has to adjust its posture (legs and stomach) to keep themselves upright develop muscles
Excessive swaddling slows motor development: at older ages, the baby gets less exercise
Orphanages and too much crib time: delayed motor development from being supine
Tummy time: during waking, this helps develop muscles
-locomotion positively influences cognitive skill: so to an extent earlier locomotion is better
-does motor training accelerate motor development?: no exercise (control), vs eliciting stepping
reflexes actively, vs passively pumping the legs
With active training the group improves their stepping reflex (more steps per minute); passive training
and no exercise both result in the loss of the reflex. Infants in the active condition also begin to walk
Motor experience leads to depth perception and a fear of heights: the visual cliff
-locomotion effects decision making: compares beginner crawlers and the experienced (month or
more); those who have experience will not crawl over the ledge
Gap experience: crawling experience teaches infants how far of a gap they can span (including crawling
and sitting-how far can I reach?); must relearn with each new position sit-> stand-> walk etc.
Babies have to relearn their capabilities and limitations with each milestone
Cogitio ad Piaget the hild as a sietist –founder of child development
-went beyond description, and developed tests of underlying principles of development
-constructivism: children are active agents of development not passive sponges
-original theory is the stage theory (discontinuous development)
Themes: consistency: behaviours are organized by a theme
Discreteness: there are discrete (qualitative) distinctions between stages; thinking entirely
changes with each new stage
Building blocks: one stage builds the foundation for the next stage (complete in a particular
-as children learn about the world they must a) assimilate: new info into their existing theory or b)
accommodate their theories to fit the NEW information
Either the idea must assimilate into the current schema or reshape their schema in the face of new
-assimilation and accommodation usually in equilibrium (you do both depending on circumstance) .
every so often the balance is out (ie so much accommodation): when current theories are not working a
major shift in thinking occurs called equilibration (trying to get back to the balance point)
Sensorimotor stage: birth to 2 years; childrens thinking is limited to their physical experiences
Youg aies lak ojet peaee: he ou a’t see it, its goe up to 8 oths)
Basic search task not possible til 8 months: baby assumes the toy is gone
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