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Lecture 4

PSYC-223 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Implicit Memory, Fine Motor Skill, Phonological Awareness

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Fuzzy trace theory: experiences can be stored verbatim (exactly, word for word) or in terms of a gist
(main theme)
Development moves from a more verbatim style of memory to gist storage
Kids struggle with extracting the theme so they have a bias towards storing verbatim
False memory effect: Percentage falsely remembering a word is much higher in older children
Autobiographical memory: memory of events and experiences from ones life
Infantile amnesia: most memories are between 3 and 4, unless it was particularly traumatic
-less opportunity to rehearse the memories due to a lack of language before this age
-emotional salience: the importance of the event
-hippocampus development/maturation
-sese of self: efoe age  do’t eessail udestad themselves as distinct from
-evidence for earlier episodic memory in children: mobile study-babies learn to kick their foot to make
the mobile move
Tie the foot to the mobile: will kick more to make the mobile move
-introduction of delay (24 hrs, 1 month)
-measures LTM: how long can the delay be to still have the baby recall the activity
-older have longer memories; even young babies can remember for about a week
-Tests LTM not implicit memory: context dependent---ie if they swapped rooms or toys on the mobile,
the babies do not recall that they should kick
-context does not matter as much with implicit tasks
Exhibit forgetting after a delay: more clear forgetting in explicit vs implicit memory
(small forgetting curve)
-when they forget, a ue ill help the eee; ipliit eo does’t ofte el
on cues (just moving the mobile is enough)
Academic skills: reading/writing/counting
Requires foundations and pre-reading skills: -print awareness: which is the front of the book and what
page do we start on? What is a word? -Predicts future reading ability
-phonological awareness: understanding of sound in languages-words
are composed of distinct sounds being able to detect and manipulate the sound
Blending (smush sounds together); deletion/elision:
pronounce the word with syllable/ phoneme deleted (subtract out a part of the word and read);
rhyming schemes all contribute to sound awareness
The better readers will have better phonological awareness
Actual reading skill: word recognition/decoding: identifying what word that particular letter pattern
Initially all effort is focused on this task
Phonetic decomposition: sounding the word out, slowly for
unfamiliar words
Kids build speed with recognition
Whole word recognition relies on a different pathway:
automaticity; visual pattern cues the word as highly familiarfar faster and used by adults
-i the 8’s ega teahig ol hole od eogitio; eates a pole ith a geeatio of kids
who have no tools to figure out a word which is unfamiliar- must learn phonetics
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Context reading: guessing the word based on context or
Comprehension: understanding what you have reading
(meaning); higher level skill requiring fluency). Comprehension improves because increased recognition
(faster/fluency frees up resources for understanding), increase in working memory (what was said first
vs. last), increased knowledge base, increased monitoring (ability to recognize they need to reread),
increased use of strategies (slow vs fast reading based on difficulty)
Dyslexia: reading impairment not due to low intelligence or a lack of instruction
-with low intelligence it is not dyslexia, it is just general cognitive impairment
-most common types is sound processing (poor representation of speech sounds), phoneme grapheme
mapping (gap between visual and auditory representation)
-may be more of an auditory issue
-impairment evident moreso in English (think of words such as knee, thought) vs other languages (ie
Italian has few exceptions in sound rules)
What contributes to writing skills: reading and writing related, but writing requires physical skill and
spelling/letter knowledge, planning and language skills
Improves because: knowledge base increases (including vocabulary), use of strategies (knowledge
telling shift to knowledge transforming: telling consists of random ideas (no logical flow) versus
transforming: ideas are structured/ordered (beg,middle,end), increase in mechanical control (fine motor
skill) and spelling knowledge, increased monitoring (missing words, editing)
Counting Principles:
-one to one: each thing gets a different name (each item gets a different label-ie there can only be one
-stable order: the number naes alas go i a etai ode ie saig ,, esus ,,---no
stable order)
-Cadialit: the last thig ou out is the ase to ho a thigs ae thee ie ,, …thee ae
five things-even if wrong last number said should be seen as the answer)
-kids who learn to count in English learn later; English has more irregularities than other languages
Reuies eoizatio of elee o tele eeptios esus seetee ad sitee ad fot o
eight esus tet o thit
Chapter 8: Intelligence
Weschler tests: measures IQ; tests of working memory, processing speed, perceptual reasoning, verbal
The 4 categories are assessed by multiple methods (working memory and
processing basic; perceptual reasoning and verbal comprehension are higher level skills; abstract
-test varies based on age: ie small preschoolers have very small working memory so
stadad is’t as high
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Traditional and current dominant view: specific abilities include the 4 above, but there is also a general
intelligence component (g factor- all items are correlated with each other; a person who scores above
average generally scores above average in all or most categories)
Reliable: you would want similar scores over time (high reliability in late childhood, low
reliability in early childhood)
Recall that speed of habituation is the best predictor in babies of IQ (quick rate of
habituation=higher IQ); if you can process information quicker you can move on quicker and process
more---tend to be higher IQ
Even tests such as Bayley are better at predicting severe disability vs an average
-kids tested at age 11 and again at 70 tended to score similarly
what outcomes does traditional IQ test predict? PREDICTIVE VALIDITY
-higher grades and more likely to graduate -more likely to be healthy
(following RX) and longevity
-more likely to be in power careers (law, med) and the salary paid -less likely to engage in criminal acts
Intelligence and heredity vs environment:
-intelligence is more heritable than many other psychological traits at .5-.8 (50%-80% of the differences
between people can be explained by genetic differences---the highest range .8 is an adult level once the
environmental differences become less obvious)
-lower SES have lower heritability estimate: heritability differs by group
-identical twins raised together show the largest correlation vs. fraternals raised together (difference
stems from genetics)
-adopted hilde’s IQ sore correlates much closer to the biological parent versus the adopted parents
IQ; almost a 0 correlation between adopted parent and the child (random chance of being the same IQ)
Niche picking: your biological predisposition will influence your choices (and your ability to
choose increases with age)
-gap widens because of niche picking, but only with the opportunity to pick a niche (ie in
lower SES brackets the kids often do not develop skills they are genetically predisposed to such as
athletic ability- ie a’t affod to pla soe
Environment is also important: heritability is not fixed and the gene-environment effects have an impact
-cannot separate environmental and genetic effects because they both impact each other
-birth order (debatable-the oldest child may get the most early education without other distractions),
shool eioet ad leaig epeiees had thee alog ith the teahe’s epetatios eal
looes stud: teahes epetatios ad espose ifluee hild’s self-fulfilling prophecy), poverty
and malnourishment (homes with books vs no books and Flynn effect with increase in IQ), access to
Head Start programs: do interventions work for disadvantaged children?
-mixed evidence in IQ and cognitive skill, but are less likely to repeat a grade or need special education;
more likely to finish high school
-generally less improvement in IQ in the long term; likewise with cognitive skill-does’t ake uh
difference in the long term
-outcomes such as 1) are more important in the real-world than an IQ score (2)
-cycle of poverty: go home to regular impoverished environment vs high SES kids who learn all day long
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