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Lecture 6

PSYC-223 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Agreeableness, Relyon, Postpartum Depression

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Chapter 10 Emotional Development- focus on temperament and attachment
-basic emotion (happiness, sad, fear, surprise, anger, disgust) develops early: in both experience and
Newborns: pleasure vs distress (ie difficult to identify difference between fear and sadness)
2-3months: joy is clearly expressed (social smiles: in response to social stimulation)
4-6 months: clear expression of anger or frustration: such as taking something away (more
specific than distress)
By 4-6 months they can also tell apart the basic emotions on another face
All basic emotions emerge by 8-9 months cross-culturally
-ople eotios do’t deelop til 18-24 months (shame, guilt, embarrassment, pride); not cultural
-complex emotions, like autobiographial eo, euie a sese of self hih does’t
develop til later
-both emotional regulation (self-soothing) and understanding of display rules (appropriateness) improve
with age
Perception and recognition: infants understand social exchange method of communication
Still face experiment: expect and understand emotional exchange; 4-6 months can differentiate basic
-baby and mom will be interacting; then suddenly mother breaks emotional exchange with still face (no
-baby will quickly become fussy and upset when the exchange is suddenly broken
-role in post partum depression/ depression/ emotional neglect: effect on child in terms of development
By 10-12 months: engage in social referencing-they look to adults to help interpret situations
Visual cliff: with lots of crawling experience and in an unfamiliar situation they will rely on mom or dads
expression to make a choice
-when the mother encourages non-verbally (ie a smile or come here sign) the child is likely to cross over
-if the mother looks scared or fearful, the baby is less likely to cross
-reflects adult social psychology: we look to others reactions in an ambiguous situation (ie fire alarm
goes off)
-by preschool will begin to understand that you can feel two emotions at one time, that you can hide
emotion, or that 1 event can make people feel differently
Temperament: infants emotional and behavioural style (continuity); stable across situations and
biologically based
-thought to be a heritable precursor to personality; appears very early and can be detected shortly after
Thomas and Chess: study 9 behaviours using parent reports then classified into 4 categories
1. Easy (~40%): tend to be in good moods and easy to soothe, regular schedule of eating and
sleeping, can handle new situations
2. Difficult (~10%): fussy, and difficult to soothe; do not adapt well to change
3. Slow to warmup (15%): in between 1&2: adjusts to new situations, but needs time
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