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Lecture 12

PSYC-223 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Chronic Poverty

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Societal Influences
-childcare, workplace, neighbourhoods and school all influence childhood development
-more than 50% of Canadian kids are in childcare due to more single parent homes and more dual income homes
-less children are in daycare than private care, except for in Quebec where the subsidies for daycare are better
-non maternal care has occurred throughout history: ambivalent attitudes towards mothers of young children who
work and put their child in childcare
-attachment security to mother is ONLY negatively effected if the bond was low quality to begin with, and the child
is in low quality care
-quality of childcare is vital to good outcomes: low ratio of children to caregivers, caregivers who are well-
educated, responsive and promote cognitive and social development
-good care can actually lead to more advanced cognitive and verbal skill
-high quality care esp. benefits low SES groups: makes them more school ready and translates into success
-multiple low quality caregivers, or constant rearrangement/displacement has negative effects
-once school age, the afterschool care likely focuses on activity or academics; may help improve the child but is
-students who participate in extracurriculars tend to be higher in self esteem, better academically, and better
adjusted (less likely to have behavioural issues), and more likely to do post-secondary: most kids truly enjoy the
activitiesnot just about achievement oriented parents
-latchkey children: kids who care for themselvesshows no harmful effects so long as the child is in a safe
neighbourhood (poor outcomes with low SES groups and dangerous neighbourhoods [ie drugs])
-self care requires planning of the parent: most provinces a child cannot be alone till age 10-12. More important is
childs maturity and capability, and personal feelings (ie anxious to be alone)
Child needs to be prepared, follow rules, and should check in with parent
-many companies (ie hospitals) now provide childcare onsite, so the parent can work near the childs care center
Part time jobs: most believe it builds character and teaches self discipline but can actually have negative effects
a)marks tend to drop, especially at 20 hours a week or more b) mental health and behavioural problems more
commonincrease in anxiety and depression, decrease in self-esteem (repetitive jobs such as fast food
undermine self esteem); long work hours correlated with theft, substance abuse, and cheating behaviours
c)affluence is misleading: teens learn patterns of spending soon as they earn, and few set aside money for school
often use the money for alcohol and cigarettes also
-effects comparable across ethnicity and gender
-lear to sped oey, ot sae, ad do’t reogize that oey ould e alloated elsehere if they were
independent (ie utilities)
-key is the number of hours of work: 5-10 hours a week is best
-job should use skills: ie if the child is good with computers working in an office allows them to develop skill, be
mentored, and self esteem increases
-should be taught to save not spend, and to spend on useful things (ie clothes and university, not cigarettes and
-suer jos do’t alays sho the sae effets: kids do etter at these, eause they do’t hae the added
stress of school
Neighbourhoods: people living in a homogenous geographically close area; SES of neighbourhood and stability
most important
-in general child benefits from an educated neighbourhood with high SES groupsbenefit seen in school and
psychological adjustment
-higher SES neighbourhoods tend to have kids with less behavioural and emotional issues longitudinally
-impact is indirect: transferred through people and institutions
--what resources are available to enhance development: libraries, mueseums, etc as well as schools and hospitals
-low SES children often less likely to find part time work in their neighbourhood and thus turn to crime and
-higher SES neighbourhoods more closely knit and provide positive social supportadults more likely to intervene
and monitor eighourhood kids ee he the hild is’t their o
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