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Lecture 3

SOCI-100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill, Cultural Relativism, Defoliant


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCI-100
Professor
Susan Raine
Lecture
3

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Ch.4 CULTURE AND SOCIALIZATION
A: CULTURE
understand what culture is
learn components of culture/key concepts ideas
understand how it shapes us
viewing other cultures
critical thinking
B: SOCIALIZATION
what socialization is
key concepts/ideas/theories
understand how we develop as humans
comprehend self-identity
resocialization
A: CULTURE
-collection of values, beliefs, behaviors, & material objects
shared by a group & passed inter-generationally
5 defining features
culture is
1. learned
2. shared
3. transmitted
4. cumulative
5. human
material culture
-tangible artifacts/physical objects found in a given culture.
-E.g. teaspoon, football, car, teapot, smartphone, vase, jeans, blankets, etc.
non-material culture
-intangible/abstract components of a society, including values & norms
-e.g. language, beliefts (political, religious, etc.), values.
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ASPECTS OF CULTURE
values
-beliefs about ideal goals & behaviors
set the standard for social life
ideas about right/wrong
norms
-culturally defined rules that outline appropriate behavior
-general guide
Types of norms
i. folkways
-informal norms that suggest customary ways of behaving
when violated, you don’t incur serious consequences
ii. mores
-norms that carry a strong sense of social importance
-e.g. extra-marital affair
iii. laws
-norms that are formally defined and enacted in legislation
What about other cultures?
Ethnocentrism
-tendency to view one’s own culture as superior to others
Cultural Relativism
-all cultures have intrinsic worth and need to be evaluated and understood on
their own terms
-help understand cultural practices (e.g. “strange” foods)
-problem: when used to excuse behaviors that violate human rights (e.g. “honour
killings”)
Language
-shared symbol system of rules/meanings governing speech.
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-Share experiences
-Conceptualize situations
-Transmit culture
-Tool of discrimination
-Identity
subculture
-group whose values, norms, folkways or mores set them apart from mainstream
culture.
-What types? Goths, Punks, LGBT, etc.
counterculture
-subculture that strongly opposes widely held cultural patterns of society
may seek to overthrow
CASE STUDY: 1960S COUNTERCULTURE
-“Baby Boom” generation
-alienated youth rejected parents’ values (dominant cultural values)
monogamy, social order, social responsibility, conformity, etc.
Goals/Values
-communal living
-sharing/rejection of money
-hippie lifestyle
-sexual freedom
-experimentation (e.g. drugs)
-radical politics
counterculture activism
-social activism à more equitable society
à addressed critical sociological issues.
I. Civil Rights
-racial segregation & illegal lack of voting rights among Southern black population
-Martin Luther King Jr. – non violent protest
-activists supported civil rights movement
II. Freedom of Speech and Congregation
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