SOCI-225 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Structural Inequality, Racialization, Learned Helplessness
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Daly 1992 Describes Five Pathways for Women's Involvement in Crime.
1. Has been harmed or is being harmed.
2. Battered women syndrome.
3. Street Women (or homeless)
4. Drug connected women.
Role Convergence Hypothesis
It was once believed that with the roles of women becoming similar or one with that of men,
their involvement of crime would increase.
This has yet to be supported.
-The gender gap for criminal offending has declined.
-Increases in female based property theft may be a indication of the "feminization of poverty"
-Women in corporate positions are still less likely to commit corporate crimes.
Race & Crime
-Race is not as strongly related to crime as age and gender.
-Some minority groups are over-represented in police-reported crime statistics in Canada.
-Over-representation influenced by location.
-In Canada, the Prairies: Aboriginal over-representation.
-In Canada, the Toronto and NS: Africans
-Africans are more likely to stopped and searched. Also receive tougher sentences.
Two Explanations of Over-Representation of Minorities in CJS
1. Differential Offending Hype: Difference between racial groups in terms of the incidence
rate, level of seriousness and persistence of offending patterns.
2. Differential Treatment: Structural inequality in administration of justice.
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