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Lecture

AEBI 120 Lecture Notes - Active Transport, The Membranes, Microtubule


Department
Biology (Agric & Envir Sc)
Course Code
AEBI 120
Professor
Gary Dunphy

Page:
of 3
September 16th, 19th, 2011
Cell structure
Plasma membrane
-Very thin
-Holds the cell together
-Semi-permeable, allowing active transport (using ATP) to occur
-Proteins
-Hold the membrane together
-Allow respiration and photosynthesis
-Participate in active transport (channel proteins)
-Recognize cells of the same type (recognition proteins)
-Bind hormones (receptor proteins)
Cytoplasm
-Is 85-90% water
-bound to proteins or nucleic acids
-free
-Breaks down nutrients
-Produces waste
-Synthesizes protein
Organelles-Animal
Ribosomes
-Contain 2 types of RNA
Golgi apparatus
-Contain 5-8 cisternae with transport vesicles
-Exocytosis
-Produce peroxisomes
-Membrane bound
-Peroxidase and catalase will break down hydrogen peroxide, amino acids and
fatty acids
Lysosomes
-Membrane-bound recycling centre with more than 40 types of enzymes
-10 types of carbohydrases 15-20 types of protease, 5-10 types of lipases
-Break down food (Amoeba breaking down bacteria)
-Help to resist disease (macrophages digest pathogenic bacteria)
-Digest damaged organelles so that the molecules can be reused
Mitochondrion
-Has 2 membranes (the inner membrane is highly convoluted, creating cristae where Acetyl-
CoA is broken down and ATP is produced)
-Matrix contains DNA
Cytoskeleton
-Permanent organelles
-Microfilaments
-Maintaining shape
-Mobility -Fibres attached to the cell membrane contract, creating pseudopodia
(which also begin phagocytosis)
-Actin forms chains of globular proteins
-Intermediate filaments
-Structure
-Composed of proteins (eg: lamina)
-Microtubules
-Structural support
-Also found in plants
-Composed of the globular protein tubulin which forms a tube structure
-Centrioles (organizing centre) at base give rise to microtubules
Cilia -Mobility
-Paramecium
Flagella
-Mobility
-Euglena
Organelles-Plant
Plastids
-Produce and store food
-Leucoplasts
-colourless
-Produce and store starch, oil and proteins)
-Chromoplasts
-Contain pigments
-Chloroplasts
-Contain chlorophyll
-Double membrane with a highly convoluted inner membrane
-Thylakoids are stacked in columns called grana
-Contain enzymes for photosynthesis
-Stroma is gelatinous starchy material
Vacuoles
-Membrane-bound
-Store sugars, organic acids, proteins, salt
Nucleus
-Located in the middle of the cell
-Serves as a control centre for all of the cells functions
-Contains DNA
-Nuclear envelope
-Outer nuclear membrane
-Inner nuclear membrane
-The membranes can fuse together and dissolve, creating nuclear pores
-monosaccharides, some ions and mRNA can pass through these pores
-Nucleoplasm
-Chromosomes/Cromatin
-Nucleoli -Make RNA and proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum
-A collection of tubes and sacs which are associated with nuclear pores
-Divides the cell into compartments
-Lumen (inside membrane)
-Transport vesicles
-Types
-Rough
-Has ribosomes on it’s surface
-Helps with protein synthesis (creates glycoproteins- proteins bound to
polysaccharides)
-Smooth
-Lipid synthesis