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Lecture

Metabolism


Department
Biology (Agric & Envir Sc)
Course Code
AEBI 120
Professor
Gary Dunphy

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September 23rd, 2011
Metabolism
Controls the acquisition and use of chemical energy which is used for mechanical work or
electrochemical work.
Catabolism breaks down molecules and in exergonic reactions (glucose-->>ATP).
Anabolism synthesizes molecules in endergonic reactions (CO2-->>sucrose).
Autotrophs
Use CO2 to obtain carbon
-Photoautotrophs use light (plants)
-Chemoautotrophs use chemicals (bacteria)
Heterotrophs
-Consume pre-formed organic molecules
-Consumers (animals)
-Decomposers (bacteria, fungi)
ATP/ADP
-ATP is phosphorylated, giving a phosphorous group to another molecule, to become ADP
and releasing energy
-The reverse reaction occurs
Enzymes
-Globular proteins
-Specific, and give rise to one type of product
-Catalyze reactions by lowering the activation energy
Induced Fit Model
-The active sites can be charged to attract substrates
-The orientation of the substrates must be precise in order for a bond to form
Rate of Reaction
-Concentration of reactants
-Optimum temperature and pH for enzyme
Enzyme Control
Long-term control
-DNA codes for more production of the enzyme
Short-term control
-Feedback inhibition/allosteric regulation
-In the production of protein, tryptophan is used
-The enzyme trp synthase will take in substrates and release tryptophan
-As the concentration of tryptophan goes up, it will enter the allosteric site, changing
the structure of the enzyme and making the active site unavailable
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