BIOL 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Nitrogenous Base, Microtubule, Contractile Vacuole

35 views35 pages
15 Sep 2018
Department
Course
Professor
1
1. Levels of organization of life
1.1 Life
1.1.1 Organization
Atom molecule organelle cell (unicellular/multicellular) tissue organ
system- organism- population community ecosystem- biome
Living things = Organisms [Virus not cells not living things], made of cells
Atoms we're made of = CHNOPS (e.g. PO4-)
Molecules (bio) : Group of atoms in a specific structure giving a specific function
Macromolecules
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Organelle : Structure inside a cell, w/ specific function (e.g. chloroplast)
Cells : Basic units of life
Unicellular organisms = one cell (e.g. bacteria, paramecium)
Multicellular organisms
Tissues : Group of similar cells (epiderm of skin)
Organ : Body part w/ a specific function, composed of different tissues (e.g. skin,
stomach
System : Group of organs w/ a general similar function (digestive system,
excretory system [urine], respiratory system and circulatory system)
Biological species : members having potential of reproduction, which kids are
viable and fertile offspring
Populations = same specie's members interacting with each other (e.g. MTL's
squirrels vs. South Shore's squirrels)
Community : Sum of all the populations in an area (biotic)
Ecosystem : Community interacting w/ their abiotic factors (physical), such as
precipitation, soil type, T°, light [sun].
Biomes : Large terrestrial ecosystems (forest, desert, plains, mountains, etc.)
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 35 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
2
1.1.2 Energy Transfer within an organism and between
trophic levels:
Photosynthesis (chloroplast) : located inside the chloroplast (organelle) traps the
sunlight energy during photosynthesis = transfers energy to glucose
Cellular respiration (mitochondria) harvesting energy contained inside glucose to
make ATP, inside a mitochondrion.
A) Energy transfer within a food chain or ecosystem
Same thing as what is happening within the cells, however it is between
plants and animals (all animals eating from the plants and other animals
are called Heterotrophs)
PLANT: autotroph (self-feeding)
PRIMARY CONSUMER: herbivore
Secondary, tertiary and quaternary consumers are carnivores
Quaternary consumers are called top carnivores
Primary Producer/ Autotroph
Consumer (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary) / Heterotroph
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 35 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
3
B) 2 Laws of Thermodynamics
Living things need energy
First law of thermodynamics: Energy is not created or destroyed, but
transferred.
1 - WITHIN CELLS
ATP: Type of energy our cells need (cellular energy to do cellular
work)
**1 mitochondrion, 2 mitochondria**
Chlorophyll (molecule) located inside the chloroplast (organelle)
traps the sunlight energy during photosynthesis = transfers energy
to glucose
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 35 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class