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BIOL 111 Lecture Notes - Osmosis, Kidney Failure, Caffeine

Biology (Sci)
Course Code
BIOL 111
Irene Gregory- Eaves

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Many reptiles are endangered due to human activities:
- over harvesting
- habitat manipulation
Birds and mammals have two separate circuits:
Reptiles (not including birds):
- Intermediary with ventricle that’s somewhat separated and 2 atria
- Some reptiles can shunt blood directly to aorta underwater
- Terrestrial
- More efficient heart, breathe only through lungs
- Most conserve water w/ water proof skin and scales made of keratin
- Shedding of skin happens in some reptile controlled by hormones
- Produce nitrogenous waste to conserve water
- Reproduce on land = internal fertilization and amniotic egg
Non-avian reptiles:
- 6000 species
- Most terrestrial
- Carnivorous, omnivorous, herbivorous
- Dry skin, scales
- First amniotes: arose in carboniferous
Amniotic egg
= egg surrounded by extra embryonic membranes: perhaps with external
- Shell: leathery/brittle (CaCO3)
- Impermeable to water
- Permeable to gases
- Not present in therian mammals
- Embryo surrounded amnion for protection
- Yolk sac produced by embryo
- Allanntois: place for storage of waste and gas exchange
- Chorion for gas exchange and water conservation
- All surrounded by albumen
Consequences of terrestrial egg:
- internal fertilization must occur:
- sperm cannot penetrate egg shell, shell and albumen are added to
the fertilized egg after fertilization
- must have non toxic nitrogenous wastes = uric acid
Excretory system:
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