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BIOL 111 Lecture Notes - Caffeine, Beta Cell, Alpha Cell

Biology (Sci)
Course Code
BIOL 111

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Bio 111 Alanna Houston
November 1, 2007
-grouped based on head parts: chelicerates and mandibulates
-mandibulates: hexapods, crustaceans, myriapods
-Body regions: head (antennae, mandibles), thorax (3 pairs of
walking legs…may have wings), abdomen (no appendages)
-Stalk-eyed flies (eyes off appendages)- male with widest eyes gets
to reproduce with the female (sexual selection)
-Wings evolved 320 mya:
oSecondarily lost over time by some insects
-Most abundant and diverse group
oHerbivores, detritivores, fluid-drinkers, predators,
scavengers, parasites
o1/3 are beetles
oflies, fleas, bees, termites, aphids…
oleaf-cutter ants feed the fungus that eats the leaves
oants sitting on the leaves are individuals protecting the
workers. Protecting them from wasp eggs being laid in their
abdomen (eggs with hatch and burst out of the ant killing it.
oInsects are the most successful group because they
voevolved with angiosperms (pollination), they evolved
flight, they were the first to invade land, they evolved flight
-Molting enables changes in morphology = metamorphosis
oEach instar (larva) produces a new exoskeleton

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Bio 111 Alanna Houston
oAt each molt, modification is possible
-Insects cease molting as adults.
-Metamorphose to adult form:
oIncomplete metamorphosis or complete metamorphosis
-Crustaceans continue molting as adults
oAbrupt changes in form
Juveniles do not resemble adults
Resting stage (pupa)
oOften major habitat changes
oGradual changes in form
Juveniles similar to adults
No resting stage
oNo habitat change
-largely marine
-head and thorax (cephalothorax) and abdomen
-appendages off each segment
-compose ‘zooplankton’
-crabs, daphnia, barnacles, shrimp, crayfish, isopods…
-Parasitic isopod (eats tongue of host and then acts as a tongue
-2 regions: head and trunk
-Centipedes (Chilopoda)
oOne pair per segment
-Millipedes (Diplopoda)
oTwo pairs per segment
oDetritivores, Herbivores
-arachnids (spiders, mites, scorpions)
-horseshoe crabs
-no jaws (mandibles)
-2 body regions:
ocephalothorax (appendages)
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