BIOL 111 Lecture Notes - Gynoecium, Double Fertilization, Eudicots

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Published on 26 Jun 2012
Department
Course
Professor
Bio 111 Alanna Houston
October 2, 2007
Summary Growth:
-Growth
oEnergy from light
oMaterial from air>water>soil nutrients
oVarious mechanisms to improve nutrient uptake
-Differentiated into about a dozen cell types
oDermal (epidermis, stomatal guard cells, cork)
oGround (parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma)
oVascular (xylem = tracheids + vessels = dead, phloem =
sieve = live)
oWater up through evaporation and cohesion
oSugar down through live part of cell osmotic pressure
water pressure
*No lecture next Tuesday or Thursday or lab on Thursday
Interacting with the Environment (1st of 3 challenges):
-Darwin and Son’s Experiment
oConclusion: The part of the coleoptile that senses light is in
the tip and it sends a signal from the tip to the growing
region
o
-Tropisms
oPhototropism: Light creates auxin, auxin concentrated on
side away from the light causing lengthening in that side
o
-Hormones
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Bio 111 Alanna Houston
oGrow/Spring hormones
Giberellin (stem elongation, seed germination, fruit
growth)
Auxin (tall stems – stem elongation, inhibition lateral
buds but promotes lateral roots
Giberellin + Auxin = tall vs. cytokinens and ethylene
= wide
-Some Practical Applications
oGiberellins and auxins make seedless fruits grow
oEthylene is released by ripening fruit and causes ripening
Ripen green tomatoes at the store
Why ‘one rotten apple spoils the bunch’
oAuxin – starts lateral roots on a branch cutting while
suppressing lateral branches on stems
-Defenses against Being Eaten
o
-Defenses against Drought
oLose the leaf and go back to having green stems
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Bio 111 Alanna Houston
oSucculent stems to hold water
oEphemeral (only blooms for ~ a month when there is rain
(February/march)
oStomatal adaptations
oTaproots
oLeaf Orientation
-Defenses against water
oMangrove (pneumatophores – roots sticking up from the
ground to get oxygen)
oArenchyma for flotation and or oxygen transport (lilies)
oSalt exudation (excretes salt)
-Plant Reproduction
oConifers: have pollen. Have female cones and male strobili
(softer...made from leaves)
oPine Life Cycle:
oAngiosperm Life Cycle:
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Document Summary

*no lecture next tuesday or thursday or lab on thursday. Interacting with the environment (1st of 3 challenges): Darwin and son"s experiment: conclusion: the part of the coleoptile that senses light is in the tip and it sends a signal from the tip to the growing region. Tropisms o: phototropism: light creates auxin, auxin concentrated on side away from the light causing lengthening in that side o. Giberellin (stem elongation, seed germination, fruit growth) Auxin (tall stems stem elongation, inhibition lateral buds but promotes lateral roots. Giberellin + auxin = tall vs. cytokinens and ethylene. Some practical applications: giberellins and auxins make seedless fruits grow, ethylene is released by ripening fruit and causes ripening. Why one rotten apple spoils the bunch": auxin starts lateral roots on a branch cutting while suppressing lateral branches on stems. Defenses against drought o: lose the leaf and go back to having green stems.

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