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Lecture

BIOL 111 Lecture Notes - Pedicellaria, Pearlfish, Detritivore


Department
Biology (Sci)
Course Code
BIOL 111
Professor
Multiple

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Bio 111 Alanna Houston
November 6, 2007
-Correction: Dragonflies have incomplete metamorphosis
-Evolutionary innovations: multicellularity, tissues, gut, mesoderm,
head, segmentation, nervous system, anus, circulatory system,
hard skeleton, coelom
oKnow these and where they evolved for final exam
-In protostomes: central nervous system is ventral, anus is from
the second opening, circularoty system has a dorsal heart, hard
skeleton is external, coelom develops from schizocoely
-
- Splitting within the mesoderm (protostomes)
-In deuterostomes: central nervous system is dorsal, anus is from
the first opening, circulatory system has a ventral heart, hard
skeleton is internal, coelom develops from enterocoely
-
-Embryonic development (protostomes vs. deuterostomes)

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Bio 111 Alanna Houston
-
-Deuterostomes have radial cleavage but sometimes protostomes
also have it. Usually protostomes have spiral cleavage
-Deuterostomes: echinoderms, hemichordates, chordates
(urochordates, cephalochordates, vertebrates)
-
Echinoderms:
-~7000 species
-strictly marine
-benthic (bottom dwellers)
-diverse modes of nutrition
-ex: sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars
-spiny skin
-hard endoskeleton:
ocomposed of CaCO3 plates
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Bio 111 Alanna Houston
ocontinuous growth (plates enlarge and new ones are added)
ocovered by thin layers of skin and muscle
-pentaradial symmetry (5-part symmetry)
-larvae have bilateral symmetry
oevolved from bilaterally symmetrical ancestor
-Body plan
oAnterior-posterior foreshortening
oFlopped over, mouth down
o
-Cnidarians also have an oral/aboral surface
-
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