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Lecture

BIOL 111 Lecture Notes - Squamata, Malpighian Tubule System, Blood Plasma


Department
Biology (Sci)
Course Code
BIOL 111
Professor
Multiple

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Bio 111 Alanna Houston
November 15, 2007
Vertebrate Hearts:
-
-Amphibians are not truly terrestrial because of their dependence
on water
Reptiles Are Truly Terrestrial:
-Breathe via lungs only
-More efficient heart
-Must conserve water
oSkin is waterproofed by keratin
oProduce a special nitrogenous waste
-Reproduce and develop on land
oInternal fertilization
oAmniotic egg
Reptiles Have Further Changes in the Heart:
-Can pull blood instead of going into the lung etc. and can go into
the right aorta and go directly to the body

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Bio 111 Alanna Houston
Birds and Mammals Heart:
-completely separate pulmonary and systemic system
-
Reptiles:
-6000 species
-mostly terrestrial
-carnivores, herbivores, omnivores
-dry skin, scales
-first amniotes
oarose during Carboniferous ~ 300 mya
Amniotes:
-embryos closed in a fluid-filled sac
-reptiles, birds mammals
-some of the eggs have shells
-Amniotic Egg:
oEvolutionary innovation
oExternal Shell – leathery or brittle, permeable to gases, fairly
impermeable to water
oSelf-sufficient – requires no parental care
o

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Bio 111 Alanna Houston
o
ochapter 43
Consequences of a Terrestrial Egg:
-internal fertilization
osperm can not penetrate egg shell
oshell and albumen are added to the fertilized egg in the
female’s oviduct
-non-toxic nitrogen waste product is required
ouric acid
Excretory Products:
-substances released by the body
-nitrogenous wastes
oproduct of protein and DNA metabolism
oreleased by excretory organs (kidneys) as well as skin and
gills
-CO2
oWaste product of cellular respiration
oReleased by respiratory surfaces
-salts, ions
oreleased by skin, gills, kidneys
-water
Nitrogenous Wastes:
-ammonia (NH3)
overy soluble in water
overy toxic
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