BIOL 111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Foraminifera, Choanoflagellate, Prokaryote

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22 Jul 2016
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Endosymbiosis
One cell “swallows” a prokaryote but ends up living together instead of being digested
Over a long time living together – genome of the endosymbiont becomes very reduced, may move to
the nuclear genome
Evidence
o Double cell membrane around mitochondria
o Genes in mitochondria that match bacterial genes
o Mitchondria & chloroplasts reproduce by binary fission independent of cell
! Inherit 100% of mitochondria (& chloroplasts) from mother’s egg
Suggested by Lynn Margulis in 60s and 70s
Protists
Eukaryotes are a monophyletic group
“Protists”
A term used out of convenience, not a taxonomic group
Eukaryotes that are not plants, fungi or animal
Size: microscopic
Photoautotrophs, (chemo)heterotrophs
Niches: free living endosymbionts, parasites
Diverse method of locomotion
DIVERSITY IN PROTISTS
UNIKONTS
“single cone”
referring to single flagella (if present)
may be close to the root of the eukaryotic tree!
examples: amoebas, slime molds and choanoflagellates
Ameobas (loboseans)
o Unicellular
o Move via pseudopods (a temporary soft extension of the cell) & cytoplasmic streaming
o May have “test” or hard shell
o eat via phagocytosis
o some are pathogenic
! ameobic dysentery 3rd leading cause of death from parasites
Slime molds
o Most closely related to amoebas
o Move by cytoplasmic streaming
o Eat via phagocytosis
o Form large aggregates
o Reproduce via “fruiting bodies” and spores
o Plasmodial slime mold - multinucleated, cells never divide
o Cellular slime mold - come together as a large colony
o Acellular - moves by pulsating .. gross
Choanoflagellates
o Choano=collar
o Sister group to animals
27
• monophyletic
Eukaryotes
Eukarya
Archaea
Bacteria
Fungi
Animals
Plants
28
“Protists”
Eukarya
Archaea
Bacteria
Fungi
Animals
Plants
Protist
Mitochondria
Chloroplasts
a term used out of convenience,
not a taxonomic group
• eukaryotes that are
not plants, fungi, nor
animals
size: microscopic
meters
• photoautotrophs,
(chemo)heterotrophs
• niches: free-living,
endosymbionts, parasites
• diverse methods of
locomotion
Protist
Protist
Protist
Protist
29
Diversity in Protists
30
Unikonts “single cone”
-referring to single flagella
(if present)
-may be close to the root
of the eukaryotic tree
3 featured groups:
A) Amoebas (loboseans)
B) Slime molds
C) Choanoflagellates
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