BIOL 111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Clavarioid Fungi, Zygospore, Arbuscular Mycorrhiza

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22 Jul 2016
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Basidiomycetes (club fungi)
terrestrial, aquatic
fruiting bodies = basidocarps
o mushrooms, puffballs, brackets
30,000 species
saprobes
o ectomycorrhizae
rusts & smuts
Ascomycetes (sac fungi)
Terrestrial, aquatic
fruiting bodies contained in saces (asci)
o morels, truffles
64,000 species
o lichen (1/2 of species)
o brewer’s & baker’s yeast
o mold & mildews
! penicillium
! aspergillus (soy, sake)
naked spores (conidia) produced asexually in
specialized hyphae (millions created)
Glomeromycetes
Aka Arbuscular mycorrhizae (small tree or shrub)
Fewer than 200 species
General life cycle of fungi
mating type + mating type -
-gamy = union
syngamy
Basidiomycetes
= club fungi
Basidium
Basidiospores
HAPLOID
(n)
DIPLOID
(2n)
Fused
nuclei Fertilization
Meiosis
DIKARYOTIC
(n+ n)
Basidium
Karyogamy
Plasmogamy
Dikaryotic
mycelium
(n+ n)
Nuclei
Basidiocarp
or
Basidioma
(fruiting
structure)
Developing
basidium ( n+ n)
Gills lined
with
basidia
– Mating
type
+ Mating type
Mycelial
hyphae
Gills
General life cycle of fungi
mating type + mating type -
-gamy = union
syngamy
Basidiomycetes
= club fungi
Basidium
Basidiospores
HAPLOID
(n)
DIPLOID
(2n)
Fused
nuclei Fertilization
Meiosis
DIKARYOTIC
(n+ n)
Basidium
Karyogamy
Plasmogamy
Dikaryotic
mycelium
(n+ n)
Nuclei
Basidiocarp
or
Basidioma
(fruiting
structure)
Developing
basidium ( n+ n)
Gills lined
with
basidia
– Mating
type
+ Mating type
Mycelial
hyphae
Gills
Ascus
Ascomycetes
= sac fungi
HAPLOID (n)
DIKARYOTIC
(n+ n)
DIPLOID
(2n)
Mating type a ()
Mating type A ()
Mating structure
Karyogamy
Plasmogamy
Dikaryotic
mycelium
(n+ n)
Ascospores
Ascospores (n)
Ascus
Haploid
hyphae
(n)
Dikaryotic
asci (n+ n)
Germinating
ascospores (n)
Ascocarp or Ascoma
(fruiting structure)
Fused
nuclei
Fertilization
Meiosis
Mitosis
conidia
Glomeromycetes
Fewer than 200 sp.
• terrestrial
form endomycorrhizae
with plants
shown to increase
plant’s tolerance to
stress and pathogens
• coenocytic
Reproduce asexually, no
known sexual stage
Ascus
Ascomycetes
= sac fungi
HAPLOID (n)
DIKARYOTIC
(n+ n)
DIPLOID
(2n)
Mating type a ()
Mating type A ()
Mating structure
Karyogamy
Plasmogamy
Dikaryotic
mycelium
(n+ n)
Ascospores
Ascospores (n)
Ascus
Haploid
hyphae
(n)
Dikaryotic
asci (n+ n)
Germinating
ascospores (n)
Ascocarp or Ascoma
(fruiting structure)
Fused
nuclei
Fertilization
Meiosis
Mitosis
conidia
Glomeromycetes
Fewer than 200 sp.
• terrestrial
form endomycorrhizae
with plants
shown to increase
plant’s tolerance to
stress and pathogens
• coenocytic
Reproduce asexually, no
known sexual stage
General life cycle of fungi
mating type + mating type -
-gamy = union
syngamy
Basidiomycetes
= club fungi
Basidium
Basidiospores
HAPLOID
(n)
DIPLOID
(2n)
Fused
nuclei Fertilization
Meiosis
DIKARYOTIC
(n+ n)
Basidium
Karyogamy
Plasmogamy
Dikaryotic
mycelium
(n+ n)
Nuclei
Basidiocarp
or
Basidioma
(fruiting
structure)
Developing
basidium ( n+ n)
Gills lined
with
basidia
– Mating
type
+ Mating type
Mycelial
hyphae
Gills
Ascus
Ascomycetes
= sac fungi
HAPLOID (n)
DIKARYOTIC
(n+ n)
DIPLOID
(2n)
Mating type a ()
Mating type A ()
Mating structure
Karyogamy
Plasmogamy
Dikaryotic
mycelium
(n+ n)
Ascospores
Ascospores (n)
Ascus
Haploid
hyphae
(n)
Dikaryotic
asci (n+ n)
Germinating
ascospores (n)
Ascocarp or Ascoma
(fruiting structure)
Fused
nuclei
Fertilization
Meiosis
Mitosis
conidia
Glomeromycetes
Fewer than 200 sp.
• terrestrial
form endomycorrhizae
with plants
shown to increase
plant’s tolerance to
stress and pathogens
• coenocytic
Reproduce asexually, no
known sexual stage
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