BIOL 112 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Frameshift Mutation, Start Codon, Ribosome

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9 Apr 2012
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How genotype converted into phenotype from DNA…
Where are the genes? Where do they start and end? Which strand are they on?
One DNA strand has same sequence as the mRNA. The other strand acts as the template for
transcription.
Sense/coding strand vs. antisense/template strand
The two strands don't make the same RNA therefore they make different proteins.
The RNA polymerase binds to a DNA sequence upstream of the transcript called the Promoter.
Coding regions always begin with methionine (AUG).
Most common sequence in eukaryotes: TATA
The three-frame problem:
DENT LECTURE 7: Transcription, Translation and Mutation
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So there are 5' un-translated region and 3' untranslated region, where RNA is transcribed, but not
translated.
The stop codons have proteins called "release factors" rather corresponding tRNA than that bind to it .
The tRNA anticodon does not strictly obey base-pairing rules
There are many codons corresponding to a amino acid.
Degeneracy arises because it cheats… it doesn't have to match exactly.
Wobble pairing and the degeneracy of the genetic code
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