BIOL 112 Lecture Notes - Nuclear Pore, Endocytosis, Symporter

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17 Apr 2012
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Active Transport
requires energy (directly or indirectly)
moving against the concentration gradient
Primary Active Transport
Sodium Potassium Pump
in animals only
pumps out 3 Na ions and 2 K ions
uses energy from 1 ATP
used for osmolarity - net movement of one ion.
not needed for plants due to cell wall.
also used to generate membrane potential.
- creating concentration gradient to set up transport of other molecules
Secondary Active Transport
Use established gradients to move substances
Indirect use of ATP.
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The Endomembrane System
Why are Cells so small ?
reactions require diffusion in a cell
diffusing molecules don't travel long distances due to their "random walk"
(brownian motion)
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Cells are divided into two categories:
Prokaryotes (Bacteria & Archea)
Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes
No nucleus & hardly any membrane enclosed organelle
inhabit environmental extremes
largest metabolic diversity (digest pretty much anything)
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