BIOL 112 Lecture Notes - Lecture 30: Covalent Bond, Electronegativity, Aufbau Principle

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21 Jul 2016
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1Small molecules
!The below is mostly review of basic chemistry
!Atomic structure: protons, neutrons, electrons
!Mass of proton = standard unit of measure called the dalton OR amu (1 amu is
roughly 1.7 x 10-24 g)
!Matter: anything that occupies space, and has mass (which is a quantity of matter,
circular definitions ftw)
!Inertia: resistance to change of state of motion
!Classification of matter:
o!Separable by physical means = mixture
!!Homogeneous (uniform throughout, e.g. salt solution) or
heterogeneous (not, e.g. milk - fat in a water-based medium)
o!Not separable by physical means = substance
!!Compound (decomposable by chemical process) or element (not)
!Atomic mass = mass of neutrons, protons and electrons in amu (atomic mass units)
o!Neutrons and protons have mass 1, electrons have a mass of something like
0.0005
o!Note that atomic mass is different from atomic weight - atomic weight is the
weighted average of the atomic mass of the isotopes of an element
o!Relative atomic mass is a synonym for atomic weight, and this is rarely a
whole number
o!Also note that neutrons and protons don't have exactly the same mass; we
approximate
o!Furthermore, due to binding energy ...
o!But in any case the lesson here is that atomic mass and weight are rarely
whole numbers for several reasons
o!The explanation in the lecture itself is a bit misleading, and doesn't really
account for the difference between atomic mass and weight
!The periodic table, classifies elements in groups and families, primarily
!Isotopes: different number of neutrons, but identical chemical properties
(determined by protons and neutrons)
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