BIOL 112 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Anabolism, Hydrolysis, Enzyme

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21 Jul 2016
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ΔGΔG
between products and reactions - if negative, free energy released; if
positive, energy consumed
!If free energy is not available, no reaction occurs
!Magnitude of G depends on delta H (total energy added or released) and change in
entropy
!Example: breaking apart ATP molecule to produce ADP; the high-energy bond is full
of energy
o!When you break protein into amino acids through hydrolysis, increase in
entropy and thus -delta G scales with delta S
!First law: energy never destroyed etc
!Second law: entropy increases through energy transformations so living organisms
need constant supply of energy to maintain order
!Exergonic reactions: release free energy (-deltaG): catabolism, complexity
decreases (generates disorder)
o!So products have less free energy than reactants (think of ball rolling down
hill)
!Endergonic reactions: consume free energy (+deltaG), anabolism; complexity
increases
o!Think of pushing ball up a hill (products have more energy, so you need a
certain amount of energy to initiate)
!In principle, chemical reaction can run in both directions
o!So both the forward and reverse reaction are balanced, with deltaG = 0 at
the equilibrium point
o!The value of deltaG gives you the point of equilibrium - near-zero values of
deltaG relate to easily reversible reactions
o!If deltaG is very negative, will produce more product than reactant
o!If deltaG is very positive, will produce more reactant than product
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