BIOL 201 Lecture 2: Lecture 2 Notes

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29 Jul 2016
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Friday, May 13, 2016
BIOL 202 Lecture 2: Multiple Gene Inheritance I
Organelle genes (Cytoplasmic inheritance)
-mitotic separation and have alleles in them
-you can get variegated phenotypes by unequal
division where you get A and a alleles
Linear Meiosis of Neurospora
-starts as a diploid, divide twice (Meiosis 1 & 2),
and ends up with 4 Haploids
-has post meiotic mitotic division (helps
evolution)
-the way it segregates its chromosomes is
incredibly interesting
-people used them
Evidence for organelle based inheritance (ie: Cytoplasmic inheritance)
-For Nueropsora: mitochondria came from the mother, nuclear DNA comes from the
father
-female gamete is MASSIVE compared to male gamete!
-Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial mutant phenotype
poky:
when female has the “Poky” phenotype with WT (wild
type), everyone will have the Poky phenotype; if male
has the “Poky” phenotype, it doesn’t work
when you mate adenine deficiency (ad-), only some will
have the ad- gene
-If they’re in the germ line of the mother, you’ll most likely
inherit things
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Friday, May 13, 2016
a lot of muscle deficiencies happen in the mitochondria, which means that the
mothers will most likely pass them down to their children
-Organelle genes (aka Cytoplasmic inheritance)
EVERY offspring of affected female gets trait
Trait is NEVER passed from a male to any
offspring
Most likely autosomal dominant mother
This means that you can most likely trace your mother’s ancestry through the
mitochondrial inheritance!
Independent Assortment (aka Mendel’s Second Law)
-Practical applications:
assembling useful genes in modern crop varieties by breeding (disease resistance,
drought tolerance, ancient crop varieties)
-Traits were not moving together (INDEPENDENT!)
-Mendel’s Second Law (with his stupid peas)
mate RRyy x rrYY = Rr•Yy (• = unsure about
genetically linked)
-heterozygous RrYy
-intercrossed with like plants (RrYy x RrYy)
-found out that yellow and round is dominant to
wrinkled and green
-got a ratio of 9:3:3:1
how do we know that it is independent assortment?
-if you look at the 2 traits individually and count the
fractions, you’ll see that they’re both 3:1
-3:1 – Round:Wrinkled
-3:1 – Yellow:Green
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