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Lecture

BIOL 350 Lecture Notes - Acer Saccharum, Acer Negundo, Lichen


Department
Biology (Sci)
Course Code
BIOL 350
Professor
Ken Oakes

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BIOL 350 - Trees and Shrubs
Type
Species
Characteristics
Secondary
Community
Chokecherry
- small shrubs, leaf looks like “Black Cherry”
- ‘shit on a stick’ appearance on branches
- edible but does not taste very good
Secondary
Community
Black Elderberry
- snap the pit, if the inner parts are white, it’s a Black Elderberry, if it’s red, it’s a Red Elderberry
- compound leaves, look like Manitoba Maple
Secondary
Community
Staghorn Sumac
- stems look like deer antler, does not grow to be very tall, red fruiting body
- invade the edge of farm fields, does not compete well against other species
- spread by roots producing genetically identical copies
- may be confused with Black Walnut (leaf)
Secondary
Community
Trembling Aspen
- beautiful yellow leaves in autumn, waxy leaves to retain water
- smooth grey trunks, green underneath the trunk
- may be genetically identical to each other in proximity
- considered to be a hardwood but also a deciduous species, mostly good for paper
- tend to grow quickly and also die quickly
Coniferous Tree
Eastern White Cedar
- lives to be very old, age of the tree can be read by the rings
- scale-like leaf, has good resins to last a long time
- extremely efficient at capturing light, excrete acidic compounds to prevent other species growing
near it
Coniferous Tree
Eastern White Pine
- 5 needles arranged in a group
- arms of the white pine will be pointed to the east
Coniferous Tree
White Spruce
- scaly bark, needles can be rolled between fingers
- looks like someone with wet clothes
- cones are very small
Coniferous Tree
Balsam Fir
- long needles and sessile, valuable and expensive Christmas tree
- white liquid resin near zits, cannot roll the needles
Coniferous Tree
Tamarack
- only conifer that loses 100% of the needles
- leaves come off as a whirl
Deciduous
Secondary
Community
Common Buckthorn
- thorns on stems, waxy leaves
- distinctive berries
Deciduous
Secondary
Community
Crabapple
- wild stock of the apple species
- grey and flaky bark, trees do not grow to be very tall
Deciduous
Secondary
Community
Riverbank Grape
- able to grab onto other species, large and distinctive leaf with sharp margin
- may be mixed up with Basswood
Deciduous
Secondary
Community
Manitoba Maple
- fast growing species, weak wood that may break in windy conditions
- compound leaves with 3-5 leaflets
- definitive twig with chalky-like coating that can be rubbed off to reveal dark areas
Deciduous
Secondary
Community
Red Osier Dogwood
- very short trees, small scrubby bushes
- ‘junk food’ for deers
- noticeable red hue to the stem, veins run parallel to the margin
Deciduous
Secondary
Community
Willow
- various many species in Ontario, hard to tell apart
- water-loving, grow near river or stream
- branches break off readily, has cancerous burrows
- leaves are flattened and straight, grows very fast
Deciduous
Secondary
Community
Honey Locust
- not a native species, bred artificially to get rid of the thorns
- makes little pea pot to establish a mutualistic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria
Silver Maple
- distinctive bark with long lines, curls at the tip
- prefers to grow on wet sites
- deep indentation on the leaves and thus appearing saw-like
White Ash
- white and yellow lichen on the bark
- branches come opposite of each other
- compound leaves (similar to Manitoba Maple)
Sugar Maple
- smooth edges on the leaves
- large trunks, thick barks with ridges
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