CHEM 180 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Curbed, Kilogram, Lasagne

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21 Jul 2016
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!"07;&/B9=4>9:42>&%4;:!"think"of"something"that"you"would"like"to"eat"&"your"appetite"is"curbed"
!"risky"teenage"diet!"eat"cotton"balls"soaked"in"orange"juice"
!"told"to"chew"on"ice!"ice"melts"&"melting"ice"requires"heat"input"
" !"you’ll"be"using"calories"to"melt"ice;"but"don’t"need"a"significant"amount"of"calories"to"melt"ice"
!"@K338;B;>:@"that"melt"fat"&"block"it"from"being"absorbed"don’t"work"
Video"2"
!"obesity"is"risk"factor"for"heart"disease,"stroke,"hypertension,"cancer,"diabetes"
!"W+/&ZC2FL&B9@@&4>F;X["="weight"(kg)/height"(m2)"
" !"if"greater"than"30"="obese"
" !"but"BMI"doesn’t"distinguish"btwn"fat"&"muscle"
" !"can"have"a"body"builder"with"a"very"high"BMI"&"not"be"obese"!"exception"to"the"rule"
!"must"also"consider"N94@:b743&?9:42"
" !"the"greater"the"waist!hip"ratio,"the"larger"the"belly"size,"the"greater"the"risk"
!"5982?4;:"amount"energy"needed"to"raise"the"temp"of"1"gram"of"water"by"1"degree"C"
!"no"such"thing"as"an"“empty"calorie”"
!"5982?4;"is"a"unit"of"B;9@K?;&2E&;>;?=L&
!"1"calorie"="1000"(calories)"or"1"kilocalorie"
!"`4825982?4;:"energy"needed"to"raise"temp"of"1"kilogram"water"by"1"degree"
!"5982?4B;:;?"!"burn"food"in"a"supply"of"oxygen"&"see"how"much"heat"is"produced"
!"calorie"content"is"the"amount"of"32:;>:498&;>;?=L"a"food"has"(amount"energy"that"is"released"when"burned)"
!"Wilbur"Olin"I:N9:;?"burned"food"in"calorimeter"&"measured"contents"of"fecal"matter"&"urine"
" !"urea"in"urine"&"food"remnants"in"fecal"matter"
" !"burnt"urine"&"fecal"matter"in"calorimeter"
" !""subtracted"fecal/urine"calories"from"food"calories"to"obtain"calories"absorbed"by"body"(the"B;:9C284J9C8;&;>;?=L)"
!"fat"(9"cal/gram),"protein,"(4"cal/gram),"carbs"(4"cal/gram),"fibre"(2"cal/gram)"
!"fate"of"food"in"body"not"the"same"as"in"a"calorimeter"in"the"lab"
!"texture"makes"a"difference!"white"vs."brown"bread"
" !"components"of"food"not"broken"down"the"same"way"
" !"takes"more"energy"to"digest"brown"bread"because"of"fibre"content"
Video"3"
!"metabolizable"energy"
" !"250"grams"lasagna"if"burned"in"calorimeter,"produces"400"calories"
" !"but"only"367"cal"available"to"body"because"body"has"to"use"energy"to"break"down"the"food"
!"522`;F"foods"are"more"easily"metabolized"bc"they"have"been"“pre!digested”"
!"expend"more"calories"to"break"down"?9N"carrots"than"cooked"carrots"
!"well"done"steak"provides"more"calories"than"raw"meat"(cooking"process"breaks"down"protein"&"fat)"
!"calories"as"determined"by"calorimeter:"
" !"orange"juice"(1"cup)"108"calories"
" !"fudge"(1"square)"155"calories"
" !"dynamite"(1"gram)"155"calories"
!"calorie"counts"in"restaurants"are"determined"by"calorimeter"
" !"they"roughly"parallel"the"actual"calories"absorbed"which"depend"on"fibre,"texture,"amount"of"cooking"
!"since"fast"food"restaurants"have"had"to"post"calorie"counts,"the"amount"fast"food"eaten"has"NOT"decreased"
!"B;:9C284@B:"energy"consumption"by"biochemical"processes"
!"C9@98&B;:9C2845&?9:;&ZW+#[:"amount"of"energy"expended"in"24"hours"if"body"is"doing"nothing"
" !"the"total"calories"needed"to"keep"you"alive"
!"can’t"“burn”"a"calorie"!"can"burn"food"to"produce"energy;"we"equate"calorie"content"with"food"
!"walking"(5.6"mph)!"4"cal/minute"
!"how"is"this"determined?"
" !"have"ppl"exercise"in"a"room"&"measure"the"temp"increase"
" !"or"measure"amount"O2"inhaled"&"amount"CO2"produced"which"is"proportional"to"amount"of"calories"burned"
" !"food"+"oxygen"="CO2"+"water"
!"dancing"(disco)"!"5.5"cal/min"
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