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Lecture

CHEM 212 Lecture Notes - Forensic Science


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 212
Professor
Mike Daoust

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LECTURE 1 (05/02) - CHEM 212 - SUMMER 2011
Introduction
Professor: Ariel Fenter
Email: ariel.fenster@mcgill.ca
Office: Otto Maas 110
Syllabus
Introduction & Review
Nomenclature
Alkanes
Stereochemistry
Alkyl Halides
Alkenes & Alkynes
Aromatic Chemistry
Note: Classes will be much faster than General Chemistry, meeting 4
times a week
Will be much more in-depth than the General Chemistry treatment of
organic chemistry
All lectures will be recorded on both LRS and COOL
Things you need
Textbook:
oRecommended: Organic Chemistry - Tenth Edition (Ninth Edition is
fine) - Solomons and Fryhle
oAny textbook works, honestly.
Molecular modeling set
Clickers
oOptional, but recommended.
Tutorials
Date to be decided
Problem sets
Found online at WebCT
Evaluation
Evaluation Date Mark Percentage

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Laboratory Every Tuesday and Thursday 20%
Quiz I Monday, May 9 5%
Midterm Monday, May 16 30%
Quiz II Tuesday, May 24 5%
Final Exam Wednesday, June 1 40%
Introduction
We know approximately 50 million compounds
o95% of these are organic compounds
Used in a large number of consumer products
Also used in forensic science
oGas chromatography
Separation technique
On a mass spectroscopy, you will have certain “peaks” which
represent the presence of individual compounds in a mixture
of compounds
Stallings Affair
oMother accused of having poisoned her child with ethylene glycol
(liquid anti-freeze)
oAfter being accused, mother was still allowed to feed the child, but
the child died and traces of ethylene glycol ended up being in found
in his body
oMother has a second child, who showed the same symptoms, and
was diagnosed with MMA
oHowever, mother still sentenced to life in jail because ethylene
glycol was found in the body and bottle
oResearchers at Yale realized the original tests were incorrect
because they only used gas chromatography, and the spike for
ethylene glycol was similar to the product produced by MMA
oFurther testing using both mass spectroscopy and gas
chromatography proved the mother’s innocence
What is the best method to remove skunk smell from a pet?
1. Wash with vinegar
2. Wash with tomato juice
3. Wash with H2O2
4. Wash with H2SO4

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Answer: Wash with H2O2
Drugs
Antibiotics: mainly based on organic compounds
oIntroduced after World War II
Former leading causes of death were due to infectious diseases like
tuberculosis or pneumonia
Since antibiotics, cancer and heart disease have become the newest
leading causes of death
There is no cancer epidemic
oBy standardizing cancer deaths by age group, we can see that the
age-standardized rate is the same
What is organic chemistry?
Organic chemicals were originally defined as chemical compounds that
were found inside living systems
oBelieved to have some sort of “vital force” that allowed for life
Conversely, inorganic compounds were defined as those that weren’t
found in living systems
However, Frederic Wohler was able to convert an inorganic compound
(ammonium cyanate) into an organic compound (urea)
oNote that ammonia and urea are structural isomers (described
later on)
August Kekule - defined the modern definition of organic chemistry
oThe study of carbon-based compounds
Archibald Couper - structural valence theory
oDepending on the elements, it determines the number of bonds that
the element can form
oCarbon is tetravalent, so it can have four different bonds formed
at a single time
This allows for a large amount of versatility and being capable
of forming many structures
Methods of describing compounds
Molecular formula
Condensed formula
Bond line formula
Isomerism
Structural or constitutional isomers
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