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Anatomy & Cell Biology
ANAT 261
Craig A.Mandato

thRespiratory 2 October 18 2011 NOTES ARE FROM LAST YEAR ONLY RECORDING AVAILABLE NO SLIDES THEREFORE IT IS UNCLEAR WHAT INFORMATION GOES WITH WHAT SLIDE Anatomy of the Respiratory Tract Things are getting smaller Starting with the trachea reviewTrachea divides into two bronchi pulmonary bronchiIf they are outside the lungs they are called extrapulmonary bronchi if they are inside they are intrapulmonary bronchiThe bronchi then divide and get smaller and become regular bronchioles smallerThe regular bronchioles split and become terminal bronchioles o All four of these are the conducting portion warms the air and moistens it conditioning as well as keeps the airway openThe bronchioles get smaller and divide into respiratory bronchioles o Transitional portion functions as the transition between the conducting and the respiratory portion where gas exchange startsAt the end of the tubes are the alveolar ducts and sacs o Alveolar ducts have specific histological identification o This is where gas exchange happens at the airduct interface Need to know this General Plan of the Conducting Portion Trachea Review As you move downwards and get smaller things have to move outEpithelium Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells secrete mucous part of air conditioningUnderneath is the lamina propria loose CT You find a lot of blood supply there this is what warms the air o This makes up the mucosaUnderneath is the submucosa dense irregular CT with glandso Glands serous acini and mucous aciniSerous watery secretionMucous mucous secretionIn the trachea you find Crings of cartilage connected by smooth muscle at the backAdventitia dense irregular CT lung tissue as you go down is found everywhere and binds everything together Pulmonary Bronchus Trachea splits into two bronchi Simple planStarting in the lumen on top is the epithelium Pseudostratified columnar ciliated cells with goblet cellsUnderneath the epithelium is the lamina propria loose irregular CT with a lot of blood vesselsSubmucosa smooth muscle found here wrapping around the bronchus We are high up in the resp tract so we still have cartilage It is no longer a Cring now it is islands of hyaline cartilageGlands in the submucosa serous NO MUCOUS ACINI IN THE PULMONARY BRONCHUS o The mucous acini make a thick secretion which will block air flow here BUT you still want the secretion that will keep the airway wet o You also see less goblet cells than in the trachea for the same reason less thick secretionAdventitia dense irregular CT surrounds the airway keeping it in place NOTE As you move down the airway you get less goblet cells less mucous acini and serous acini The Crings that you have in the trachea are now just pieces of cartilage Picture from textbook 177 What you will always see are folds In a living specimen you do not have folds the mucosa does not fold like in the drawings and slides It folds because of the fixation it is a fixation artefact This is the same in the digestive system Whenever there is smooth muscle around a tube you will see this folding So this picture shows smooth muscle wrapping around the airwayRegular Bronchioles Bronchus turns into the regular bronchioles Glands here that are lost as you move down General planEpithelium simple columnar ciliated NO GOBLET CELLSUnderneath is LPThe submucosa is almost totally smooth muscle 45 layers packed in Surrounded by adventitia Asthma you have a hard time breathing during an attack because the smooth muscle contracts and closes the airway of the regular bronchioleTerminal Bronchioles Smaller and deeper now General planEpithelium simple columnar some ciliated and some nonciliated cells almost cuboidal become shorter o Nonciliated cells are called Clara cells make surfactant soapy mixtureLP is very tiny not much here A little bit of loose CT Some capillaries but not a lot Submucosa has 12 layers of smooth muscleAdventitia still there
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