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Lecture 13

ANAT 214 Lecture 13: ANAT214_Lecture_13
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9 Pages
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Department
Anatomy & Cell Biology
Course Code
ANAT 214
Professor
Louis Hermo

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Inguinal canal
There are three layers of the anterior abdominal wall that make their way down to the pubic
tubercle and the anterior superior iliac spine towards the inguinal ligament
Lowest margin of the lower interior abdominal wall (medial)
o It is the weakest part
Medial aspect has an opening to a tube called the inguinal canal
o The testis is formed in the posterior abdominal wall and is displaced all the way down to the
scrotum through the three layers forming the inguinal canal
Carries the three layers through the spermatic cord
The midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic tubercle is the deep inguinal
ring
o The testis will follow the black like in the figure below, and enter the deep inguinal ring, to
go through the inguinal canal and exit through the superficial ring near the pubic tubercle
o The deep ring is always near the inferior epigastric artery
Hernia
o Indirect
Something (intestinal structure) goes through the deep opening and through the canal
and appears through the superficial opening
Normal passage
o Direct
Something (intestinal structure) pierces the wall of the inguinal canal and appears
through the superficial opening
o Vulnerable during exertion, sports activity, if there is a weakness, there will be a bulge
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The external aponeurosis gives off the inguinal ligament and is continuous with the fascia around
the spermatic cord
Development
The gut develops in the abdominal cavity which is very small, which can cause problems like the
guts strangling each other, and there can be knots, so it needs to be organized
The fact that the diaphragm forms very early on, allows for the organs to stay in the abdomen and
not rise up to the thoracic cavity
The umbilical cord is very large during development, so it needs space
o The gut goes into the umbilical cord and then back into the abdominal cavity
The abdominal cavity is a peritoneal cavity with a visceral layer that covers the organs, and a
parietal layer that lines the wall
Mesentery
o The visceral peritoneum that suspends the gut to the posterior wall that contains the
neurovascular bundle and lymphatics
o Lined by mesothelium
Retro-peritoneal structure
o Behind the peritoneum
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o Behind the parietal peritoneum, not covered in mesothelium, it is attached to the posterior
wall
The duodenum, ascending colon and the descending colon
Cross section of fetus
The green layer is the mesothelium which is the parietal peritoneum on the edge and the visceral
peritoneum on the developing gut
The gut is suspended by the prolongation of the visceral peritoneum, that goes all the way to the
posterior wall called the mesentery
o The red is the aorta that shoots off a vessel that will supply the gut through the mesentery
The whole gut is covered by mesothelium, which produces the serous fluid that allows the loose
gut to move around
o Pathology: excessive fluid can go into the abdominal cavity (swelling) or there can be
peritonitis (inflammation of mesothelium) which can form scar tissue that will cause
adhesions
o The gut is supposed to be sterile
Development
The gut needs to grow in length, but it is in a small space, so it can swing to the left or to the right,
and will adhere to the posterior wall which will cause it to be fixated
o In the early stages, the gut is suspended in the mesentery, then the gut will push against the
wall and will fixate
Fixation plays a very important role
o At birth, if there is no fixation, the guts can move around and can cause strangulation which
needs to be fixed by surgery and can lead to many problems
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Description
Inguinal canal There are three layers of the anterior abdominal wall that make their way down to the pubic tubercle and the anterior superior iliac spine towards the inguinal ligament Lowest margin of the lower interior abdominal wall (medial) o It is the weakest part Medial aspect has an opening to a tube called the inguinal canal o The testis is formed in the posterior abdominal wall and is displaced all the way down to the scrotum through the three layers forming the inguinal canal Carries the three layers through the spermatic cord The midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic tubercle is the deep inguinal ring o The testis will follow the black like in the figure below, and enter the deep inguinal ring, to go through the inguinal canal and exit through the superficial ring near the pubic tubercle o The deep ring is always near the inferior epigastric artery Hernia o Indirect Something (intestinal structure) goes through the deep opening and through the canal and appears through the superficial opening Normal passage o Direct Something (intestinal structure) pierces the wall of the inguinal canal and appears through the superficial opening o Vulnerable during exertion, sports activity, if there is a weakness, there will be a bulge The external aponeurosis gives off the inguinal ligament and is continuous with the fascia around the spermatic cord Development The gut develops in the abdominal cavity which is very small, which can cause problems like the guts strangling each other, and there can be knots, so it needs to be organized The fact that the diaphragm forms very early on, allows for the organs to stay in the abdomen and not rise up to the thoracic cavity The umbilical cord is very large during development, so it needs space o The gut goes into the umbilical cord and then back into the abdominal cavity The abdominal cavity is a peritoneal cavity with a visceral layer that covers the organs, and a parietal layer that lines the wall Mesentery o The visceral peritoneum that suspends the gut to the posterior wall that contains the neurovascular bundle and lymphatics o Lined by mesothelium Retro-peritoneal structure o Behind the peritoneumo Behind the parietal peritoneum, not covered in mesothelium, it is attached to the posterior wall The duodenum, ascending colon and the descending colon Cross section of fetus The green layer is the mesothelium which is the parietal peritoneum on the edge and the visceral peritoneum on the developing gut The gut is suspended by the prolongation of the visceral peritoneum, that goes all the way to the posterior wall called the mesentery o The red is the aorta that shoots off a vessel that will supply the gut through the mesentery The whole gut is covered by mesothelium, which produces the serous fluid that allows the loose gut to move around o Pathology: excessive fluid can go into the abdominal cavi
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