ANTH 201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Barkcloth, Acculturation, The White People

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8 Aug 2016
Department
Course
Archaeology and colonialism
17:54
-How to produce anti-colonial work and how to conduct fieldwork
-Dimensions of colonialism:
1)Archaeology encounters in the past
2)Archaeology as (neo-) colonialist practice in the present: Embedded within
colonial encounters so the encounter itself is colonialist.
ex. European settlers and native americans.
-Power relationship between colonizer/colonized: Idea that colonized is
exploited by colonizer. Oppresser and oppressed, what power looks like and
how is it constituted? Different way of looking at it other than power and
economic. Power is a form of cultural domination.
-Power over one group of people that is culturally different and they are
exploited in different terms
-Goal of actually sitting on the land for the longer time unlike imperialism. It
is longer term and never ending sometimes.
-Political and economic power:
Exploration(military)
Domination(territory, populations)
Exploitation of raw materials:economic aspects. Brought into home land
where they are changed into goods and brought back to native land.
Exploitation of local labor
-Cultural power:
Cultural ideas/ideologies
Cultural practices
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Aimed at oppression and submission of local populations
-Dialectic relationship between political and economic and cultural power.
Domination are only possible because of the cultural ideas we bring about us
about the people to be colonized. This dominance seeps deep into the
cultural factor of the colonized societies. They are altered in ways that are
long lasting and still have effects.
-Colonization effects the people colonized and effects the homeland and the
metropole. Sites are affected by it, the society of the colonizer is also
effected
-Sites of colonialism:
1. The colonies themselves
2. The indigenous groups impacted by the colonies: Living in colonies or
surrounding of colonies(depends).
3. The colonial homeland or metropole: center of the relationship.
-As presence of colonizers becomes established, indigenous people may
start to live in the outposts.
-Relationship between center and periphery, each of these sites is also
situated in a larger context of capitalism. Linked to capitalist exploitation.
-Has it’s effects in each of the sites and it is different in each. The
colonies themselves, brutal military encounters often with genocidal
effects. Very violent and visible what happened there in terms of
outcomes for indigenous people. Some could be less visible.
-The Effects of Coloniasm:
Direct violence: genocide, slavery, sexual exploitation,labor exploitation, etc.
Through and on human bodies. Even if you get rid of the direct violence
exerted on the body, structural forms continue to exist long after
colonialism.
Structural violence: Hard to know where it originates and sometimes hard to
point out. Exlusion from certain spaces, denial of access to resources, forced
education, religious reformation, etc.(ex. Indian schools/religious
reformation). Doesn’t involve subjecting or oppressing bodies.
Both, colonialism was a form of oppression that played out on the everyday
life. It wasn’t just in military. It was a cultural practice, cultural oppression
that affected the culturues of everyday life. We should go behond political
science or economic persective. It is a form of cultural and human practice.
It is a form of ideology that would inform colonial practices. It is about
practices(people did) and ideas. The structural is more ideas that are long
lasting.
-Colonialism as process.
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-cultural trauma
Coloniality: Colonialism has long-lasting effects. Legacies up until the
present. Colonialism is not a single one time event(colonial trauma, colonial
wound), the idea here is that even if settling happens suddenly, the
practices that colonizers carry out continue to effect the relationship
between the colonizer and the colonized. Process and practice, but
discourses as well.
-Colonial Discourses/Ideas
-Michelle Foucault ideas-
A system of representation: All the rules that define what is/is not
acceptable within a given society.
More about understanding that what we talk about has to make sense within
the parameters of what is acceptable and not acceptable to say in a society.
What is considered normal and abnormal in a society. Representation of
what is supposed to be normal.
Defines what we can say and how to say it and how to represent things.
Rely on classificatory systems where they make distinctions between
different types of people(usually civilized/uncivilized- not actual realitys
presented, it was what colonizers thought the world should and did look
like). Talk about the world as if it defines reality but it really only constructs.
Make some people look inferior and some look superior-basic goal of the
discourses.
Based on Eurocentric values(primitive/European/other/nonprimitive)-
construct reality
Does not describe but create/construct a reality
Offer cultural constructions(like gender)- concepts we work with like
primitive, reflect cultural norms of a political society. They have a real effect
on how people act in the world(binary categories)
Colonial discourses use dichotomies: “the west and the rest” Staurt Hall
These discourses and discursive categories create hierarchies between
people
You need these ideas to justify your activities of colonialism
US vs. THEM/ NORTH vs. South/ Center vs. Periphery/ Metropole vs. Colony/
Civilized vs. Primitive
These binary distinctions that we construct reality with are the result of the
beginning of modernity.
-Colonialism and modernity:
Starts with the columbis arrival in the new world. When Europe first
encountered the other because they could distinguish between us and them.
They looked at the people as primitive and uncivilized and able to by looking
at them as inferior able to put in Eurocentric idea that they were the most
advanced.
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