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Lecture 15

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ANTH 203
Michael Bisson

Australopithecus Afarensis to Homo Habilis Sites A. afarensis Laetoli, Tanzania Leakey 3.6 MYA trackway Footprints of 3 individuals Evidence of modern-style striding bipedalism Hadar, Ethiopia 4 major discoveries 3.6-3.1 MYA 1&2. Lucy and Big Man Nearly complete female post-cranial skeleton and an adult male post- cranial skeleton Show gender dimorphism Ape-like mating pattern 3. First family 13 individuals in one location Mass-death event 4. Dikika Complete skeleton of a 3 yr old chil Includes many bones that were not previously found in an early hominin Scapula resembled that of a gorilla Hyoid bone like apes Larynx had the same limitations as in a chimp in terms of vocalizations 3.3. MYA Date range 3.6-2.9 MYA Environment Dry, open grasslands Closed woodlands near water, surrounded by open grasslands Characteristics Fully bipedal Short legs and longer arms Intermediate between humans and apes Hands have long curved metacarpals and phalanges Forearm musculature is very strong Dentition Large tooth group Larger canines Molarized premolars More than 2 cusps on second premolar Large molars with flat wear Early form of Robust australopithecine Vegetarians Small tooth group Smaller canines Non-molarized premolars Smaller molars Asymmetrical wear Gracile australopithecine Omnivorous Toro, Chad A. bahrelghazali 3.5-3 MYA Dental elements Lake Turkana, Kenya Kenyanthropus platyops 3.5-3.2 MYA Flat face like a robust australopithecine, but a more human-like brain case Tim White argues that all of the above species are ONLY species (lumper perspective) with different variations Expanding matrix distortion 3 to 2 MYA in East and South Africa Two clearly defined hominin A single line with 2 branches that was a specialized vegetarian adapted to open grasslands Genus: paranthropus A line with an undetermined number of branches that was more omnivorous Genus: australopithecus and earliest members of genus Homo Vegetarian line Paranthropus aethiopicus 2.7-2.5 MYA Brain size 410 cc Post-canine megadontia Great enlargement of the premolar and molars Diet of tough, hard-shelled vegetables foods such as seeds and nuts Species in the middle Australopithecus garhi Garhi means surprise Big molars/premolars like vegetarians, but skull shape like omnivore line Mixture of characteristics
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