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Lecture 10

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ANTH 203
Michael Bisson

Chimpanzees (common) Introduction Closest living relatives Share 97% of our DNA Best analogs for the behaviour of our last common ancestor with apes Jane Goodall Gombe Stream reserve in Tanzania Study of common chimps Territorial Behaviour Groups of chimps = bands Each territory's band is defended by 3-4 adult males Each band has one or more family groups One adult female and her offsprings (including males up to 10 yrs old) aka matrifocal group Warfare is possible Dominance Hierarchies Reduces real violence Threat behaviour reinforcing the hierarchy is common Hierarchy is fluid Males are more dominant Confidence and desire to dominate is important Charging display used to intimidate others Higher ranking females give confidences to their offsprings Making them more dominant Mating Patterns Multi-male polygyny Meaning a female in estrus will mate with any male she is comfy with Differs from gorilla uni-male polygyny in which the largest silver-back male gets all the ladies Sexual dimorphism Males are larger with longer canine teeth Tool Use Termite fishing with a small twig or grass stem Chewed leaves used as a sponge and as toilet paper Cracking nuts with a stone or wood hammer Sometimes with another stone as an anvil Tool use is more frequent among females No use of weapons Senegal researchers Seen chimps sharpen a stick to stab and kill a small mammal FEMALE did this One of the few examples of females engaging in hunting Diet Mostly fruit, but 20% animal protein Insects = protein source Males engage in deliberate hunting using ambush strategies Preferred prey is the red colobus monkey Fast jumpers Need to plan ahead to catch them Meat is shared by tolerated scrounging All nearby chimps feed on the corpse at the same time NOT like food sharing in humans Most predatory chimp band = at Kibale Recently killed 7 human infants **Chimp behaviour is highly variable **Cultural innovations do not seem to pass from one chimp group to another, probably because they lack language Sex Differences in Diet Males More sugar-rich fruits More piths More meat Do it on the ground and on low branches Their dietary items
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