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ANTH 204 Definitions.docx

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ANTH 204
Jerome Rousseau

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ANTH 204 Definitions Culture: “social learning”, learned ways of acting Icon: based on a similarity between the carrier of meaning and what it refers to (a map refers iconically to the territory it depicts, pointing with a finger is iconic) Indices (Index): based on direct contact in space of time (smoke relates indexically to fire, red spots on the face to chickenpox) Symbols: have no basis other than convention Linguistic signs: most developed devices to carry meaning Lexicon: the vocabulary of a person, language or branch of knowledge- development of a word Syntax: the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language) Phoneme: any of the perceptually distinct units of sound in a specified language that distinguish one word from another (p, b, d, and t in the words pad, pat, bad, bat) Morpheme: linguistic unit of meaning Lexeme: basic lexical unit of a language, consisting of one word or several words Double articulation: with a limited number of sounds, one can generate an unlimited number of meaningful units Discreteness: units of language are mostly discontinuous Arbitrariness: no intrinsic link between a word and its meaning (onomonopia) Productivity: a language can produce an infinite number of utterances Displacement: language allows us to refer to objects and events that are remote in time and place Reflexivity: language can talk about itself Prevarication: one can lie with language Cultural transmission: language is learned Syntagmatic: in which sequence to place words Paradigmatic: which words to use Dialect: sub-category of language Lingua franca: language used habitually by people whose mother tongue is different in order to facilitate communication among them (I speak Chinese, you speak Italian, so we both speak English as a middle ground for communication) Pidgin: language created through the interaction of people who have no common language Creole: pidgin, which becomes someone’s first language Elaborated codes: specify everything; provide their own context, ex. complete story Restricted codes: infer shared information that is assumed to exist; meaning of utterance depends on context Illocutionary acts: when speech events do things, ex. “I declare you man and wife” Pictograms: represent an idea; has a specific meaning (cave paintings) Logograms: represent whole words (Chinese letters) Phonographic scripts: represent sounds Syllabaries: phonetic systems in which each character represents the combination of a consona
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