JANUARY 11, 2012:
Map of the World: Mercator projection (1569) vs. Peters Projection (1977). In the
Mercator Projection, North America is drawn as larger than it really is, Europe is
larger than it really is, and Africa is portrayed as smaller. The Peters Projection put
the equator in the centre of the projection, which is more accurate. Europe is also a
continent that is the size of Sudan in this projection.
We are still using Eurocentric explanations of reality.
Mercador Projection (1569) Peters Projection (1977)
There are many different world views. Ex) those who believe in creationism and
those who believe in evolution.
Important advances in science have been created but are completely dismissed
because of the existence of God as the main contributor or asset of creation.
The word modernus (Latin) appeared in the Roman language in the 5 century as
the significance of the new Christian era that was seen as opposed to the pagan
world. (monotheist vs. polytheist)
Modernity should be understood as the country of any legacy of antiquity as the
result of the transition of the old to the new. Intellectuals have called the new epoch
modern whenever there is a new epoch.
The belief in three main phenomena (reason, progress, and truth). These allow the
planning of ideal social order, such as a utopia. The planning of ideal social order
will lead to the standardization of knowledge and know-how and how they will be
inserted into the enlightenment.
At the height of the European enlightenment, French philosophers created the word
civilization, which described their own society. This usage was quickly adopted in
Britain, and the difference was between the savage and those in civilization-
Western vs. the rest. This fit with the imperialism of the two centuries and
described the idea of the West and the rest as the general trend that would be the
way in which development would be spreading through colonization and
The way societies will adopt values, lifestyles, world views, culture in a way of
acculturation is what is important. Development is biological because it is the distancing between creationism and
evolution, and the realization that all life obeys almost the same pattern of selection
and adaptation. (Darwins contribution).
Between 1759 and the end of the 19 century there were 3 important inputs into
views of development. First, the contribution of Wolf, which started explaining how
development evolved from a concept of transformation to a perfect form, to social
Entwicklung was a word created by Justus Moser to mean social evolution.
In 1774, Herder took this example of transformation and applied it to political
evolution, to show it as a natural process to create a universal history and to
compare the age of life with social history.
Around 1800, entwicklung became a verb, and a reflexive verb (self-development).
It meant it became fashionable, and influenced by humans, and God started to
become less important because humans were becoming more of a God in
themselves (importance of the individual).
Karl Marx discovered the potential of the word development and used it as the
historical process of productive forces showing that you have forces that need to be
developed for capitalism to grow, and there needs to be an imbalance of power in
between classes. Darwin and Hegels vision were used by Marx to deepen the
understanding of development and to understand the industrial mode of
Michele Beaud tried to explain we have the phenomenon of the acceleration of
history. We have an acceleration of knowledge, starting with the discovery of
machinery, then printing, then telecommunications, and then nuclear energy (all
within 70-80 years). The long transformation shows that most societies before this
period are considered as tributary societies. The simple characteristic of these
societies are based on the issue of private property- whether they ignore or have it.
In most sedentarian societies (immobile) the question of the tributary is based on
the surplus- which is why feudalism exists in some societies and not others. The
surplus is now generated from wealth- which divides people into those who use
wealth to get power and those who use power to get wealth (which embodies the
capitalist system). The reliance of wealth and idea that wealth=powers brought the
feudal system but also the idea to dismantle the feudal system.
The first periphery for Europe is the Americas, and in order for Europe to become
the very important place of development they needed a periphery. Without the
Americas, Europe could not become the imperialist centre of development.
Evans Pritchard and Malinowski were central figures in anthropology. Pritchard
would urge colonies to distance themselves from the tainted world of policy.
In 1860, the word development was defined. It was defined as a concept that is
applied to almost all that man has and knows. Between 1875 and 1900, we start
noticing books that use development in their title and in the 20 century the world
started to widespread in urban development.
No one was trying to avoid development because it would bring modernity.
JANUARY 13, 2012:
The British government transformed its law of development into the law of
development and welfare for the colonies in 1979. The idea of welfare is rooted in
the explanation of how the economy itself is built- with the quest for wealth, and the
quest for well-being. Welfare: basic needs are food, water, shelter, and clothing. The British government noticed this was an issue in their own country, but also in
In 1939, fascism existed, and it had a different concept of development. For the
Nazis, development was based upon ideology (socialism + nationalism), and Arian
Since the loss of the Spanish war, National Socialism (the ideology of fascism) was
spreading. Development until 1979 the concept of development in Europe was
based upon social evolutionism (or Social-Darwinism), which was based upon race.
The Germans wanted to rely on their colonies in order to able to control the wide
spread of the Nazi propaganda.
Britain built in their colonial protectorate the idea that they would guarantee the
Natives a minimum standard of health, living, etc. This would allow them to develop
the colonized region. They did this because they wanted healthier, more educated
people to be forces to protect from a German retaliation. They wanted them to
reach a certain level of civilization. This development was based on basic needs and
infrastructure, but it was meant to develop Europe and use the third worlds
resources, not to develop the colony.
The idea of growth and maturity was also important. You needed to be mature
enough to achieve development.
The idea behind this law of development and welfare of the colonies was the British
creating a universal law of development. It creates a sense of desire.
When the law was put into place, the state was in charge of development, which
created alienation at the cultural level (an acculturation phenomenon), because it is
related to social change- the change in values.
To keep colonized areas on the way to development they introduce income,
infrastructure, cash crops, etc. In order to create infrastructure, they need tax
collection. Anthropologists understood that a value system accepted with a free
choice in order to have the tax system. Joining the military was also seen by those in
colonies as a way to become colonized.
Equality of nations and of humans was brought forward in the Universal Declaration
of Human Rights by Humphries (a Canadian).
As soon as development is going to be used as a method of reconstruction of the
West, the same tools will be used. The rebuilding of Europe (1939-1949) after
WW2 had two important components- the Marshall Plan, and the McArthur plan.
The third world was included here for the first time, but not as an area that would
be built. It was supposed to assist in the rebuilding of Europe, with Africa giving
minerals and people to contribute to improving Europe.
In 1949, the liberation of China occurred (becoming the most important country of
the third world to earn independence), but it was not recognized in the United
Nations- it was denied development. Harry Truman spoke in 1949 and mentioned
for the first time the underdeveloped areas of the world, referring to Latin America,
seeking to raise a provision of international financial assistance, transfer of material
and know how, and introduced the idea that institutions, states, and private
business interests could join together to create pre-conditions for development (to
create growth, reduce inequalities, and bring about change and progress). From this
point of, there were new ways of describing development- West vs. East vs. Third
A standard definition of a developing country is a country with a relatively low
standard of living, an underdeveloped industrial base. Countries with these characteristics were portrayed as backwards, because they didnt have modern