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Lecture 15

EAST 211 Lecture 15: EAST_lec15_Nov2

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Asian Language & Literature
EAST 211
Rebecca Robinson

Wed, Nov 2 2016 1 of 5 EAST 211 Violence and accommoda▯on: The Manchu Conquest of China Terms • Qing Dynasty 1644-1911 - imperialist, last - many of the boarders established was continued today - western powers asserting themselves on a global scale, increase conflict between china and the west - cultural innovation Wang Yang Ming 1472-1529 • Ming dynasty Scholar • picks up idea from Zu Xi, needs beyond than just exams, learning is more than that • second most important neo confucian thinker • man has a innate knowledge to distinguish between good and evil, intuitive, you cannot learn it, you posses it • stressed unity of action and knowledge - engagement with earlier trends, put knowledge into action - gain knowledge between action - ex. know pain when you feel it • primacy of the mind - the mind is what spaces the world, not vice versa - objects cannot exist independently - source of all reason - the mind innately knows the pattern in which you should act - study you own mind, recognize the distinction of good and evil • decadence of late ming - many scholars talk about how the ming elite culture fell away of virtuous simplicity - a lot of commodity and extravagance • when ming dynasty end, confucian scholars blamed imperial decadence, overall decline in morality The Ming decline • Weak emperors • factionalism at court - donning scholars - eunuchs • global trade • the little ice age • two sparks: • external treats - the manchus • internal threats - LiZicheng - rebellions, against taxes from poor people - small rebel groups snowballs into armies - a number of leaders emerge Li ZiCheng • soldier in the ming army before joining rebel group Wed, Nov 2 2016 2 of 5 • moved to He nan, drought and famine • commanded more than 1million men • confucian scholars joined him, saw potential as a new leader • he was like a robin hood figure • 1642 established Shun dynasty, had he nan and hu Bei - should he conquer beijing or go south nanjing - growing threat in the north with the manchus - chose to go north, defeated the ming armies and the emperor at the time was so ineffective his advisors were giving him conflicting ideas ‣ emperor hanged himself, ended the ming dynasty • NURHACI • proclaims Jin Dynasty in 1616 - claiming equal status to the ming, declares emperor and equal to ming • Creates written manchu language • create banner system • lived on agriculture and hunting • confederation of tribes, one raises to prominence, lived on trade with the ming • a leader nurahci, organize the money from Ming, wanted to launch a state to state war • created written language for his people, adopts the mongol script for the gerchen language, banner system - Banner system ‣ fighting units ‣ unit of residence and economic production ‣ included fighting men and pendents ‣ indented by colour of banner ‣ 4-8 and added boarders etc. • had disciplined trop and convince man to join his army from ming dynasty • died in 1626, expressed his desire to attack china in the south beyond the great wall and this didn’t happen • succeed by his 8th son Hong Taiji Hong Taiji • 1592-1642 • found Qing Dynasty • liked the chinese: had chinese name, chinese officers etc. • increasing number of defecting with the ming etc. Hong incorporated people to join his team. • 8 banners were all manchu, and created 2 chinese fighting units as well as mongolian banners - associated with ethnicity, had more to do with politics • Makes a bold move 1636, declares end of Jin of his father and start of Qing - 5 power theory: 1 element will conquer others etc. - Jin dynasty was associated with metal, and ming was fire = symbolic Ming was supposed to conquer jin - Qing associate water = conquer Ming - conquers korea Wed, Nov 2 2016 3 of 5 Wu San Gui and the Shanghai Pass • choses to fight Li Zi Cheng, and makes alliance with the Manchus • Hong Tai ji dies and his brother helps his infant son • retakes beijing, choses align with the Qing - establishing Chinese officials and institutions - more reasonable • the manchus sweep in • Qing dynasty claims the mandate of heaven and rules china for the remainder of the dynasty The Many Hats of the Qing Emperors • depicted as warrior, confucian scholar and religious • initially with very little good shed, recruited ming officials, chinese style bureaucracy • but eventually they wanted to rule as manchus, and that they pledged allegiance to them • Dorgon’s Edict - shave their heads within 10 days after this order
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