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Lecture 18

EAST 211 Lecture 18: EAST211_lec18_Nov11

6 Pages

Asian Language & Literature
Course Code
EAST 211
Rebecca Robinson

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Monday, Nov 14 2016 1 of 6 EAST 211 Na▯on building and culture building: the 1911 Revolu▯on and May 4th Movement Terms • Boxer rebellion • Three principles of the people • Lu Xun Revolution • movements towards end of the Qing • Sino-Japanese war 1894-95 - over korea - domestic rebellion broke within korea - China and Japan sent troops to protect Korean royal - Japan got there faster • Treaty of Shimonoseki 1895 - full and complete independence of korea - 200 Million taels in war: indemnities - 4 new treaty ports - taiwan pescadores (penghu) ceded to japan and perpetuity - Bad treaty for the Chinese • China has always saw Japanese to be inferior, and this was humiliation - more need to modernize • Ti Yong - “chinese learning should remain the essence, but western learning should be use for practice development” - kang you wei - Liang Qichao - railway, build chinese industry of mining and steel - maintaining chinese traditions but modernization - slow modernization - call for sweeping reforms - they were taught through the examination - requested economic, industrial reforms proposal for the royal ‣ modern army ‣ needed industrial base ‣ raise taxes ‣ install postal system ‣ empress ignores this Hundred days reforms 1898 • educational reform - examine should be based on policy - not based on poetry or calligraphy - medical school - peking college (the only reform that lasted) Monday, Nov 14 2016 2 of 6 • economic reform - ordered officials throughout the country to coordinate reforms - production of tea and skip • military reform - sponsored fleet 34 modern warships • bureaucratic reform - fired the long served advisors • Emperor Guangku 1875-1908 - based on proposals of early position - put to house arrest - people advising him were later arrested • Kang you wei and his disciple fleeted china Qin • Chinese believed that their country were being taken by foreigners • anti foreign sentiment - transformed into chinese nationalism Boxers united in Righteousness 1898-1901 • brought by local self defence unites repose to western provocations • concerned with western missionaries, believed were to be a big treat • Revive the qing and destroy the foreign • no central leadership • but many peasants joined them • attracting people who were living in bad conditions • attack the christian converts, end their privileges • 1988 stole or destroyed many of their property of chinese christians and killed some • the western were concerned and asked Qin to suppress but the boxers replied “revive the qin and destroy the foreign’ • red lanterns - women boxers • roam closer to the capital regions, killing chinese converse and sometimes foreigners • Qin didn’t know how to respond: some support the box, some protect the foreigners • westerns send troops to protect the foreigns • initially the westerners were badly defeated • empress did not know what to do and meets with her advisors - CiXi’s proclamation: decided to support the boxers - declaration of war against the foreigners • Boxers continued attack • foreigners retreat to compounds • Boxers never had leadership, if they did, they could have wiped out the foreigners • CiXi although supported, didn’t bring military support • foreign troops: 20 thousand from britian, france, Russian, japan • force to negotiate the treaty • Boxer protocol 1901 - bad for Qin - Monuments of honour western dead - exams banned for 5 years i some regions Monday, Nov 14 2016 3 of 6 - ban on imports of arms for 2 years - permanent foreign guards for foreign legation quarter in beijing - execution of leading boxer supports - 450 million taels in war indemnities - payed in gold, almost 1 billion Aftermath • boxers failed to get rid of all the foreigners from china • caused the issues for the Qin • anti-foreign settlement -> rise of nationalism • they suspected that the manchus were incapable of leading China Zhou Rong • studied in Japan • Viewed their success in modernization • returned in China, saw how Qin failed • write a lot of anti manchu literature and critiques • he lived in one of the foreign concession zones in Shanghai • Subject to western legal practices so allowed some freedom of speech • revolutionary army: calls han chinese should overthrow the Manchu • Qin was furious about this, • he received a 2 year sentence - fell ill and died in prison Anti United States Boycott • US enforced strict immigration rules • Qin wanted to refuse renewing immigration treaty • Boycott of american products by merchants • short lived movement, the boycotts ends because merchants lost their faith • Chinese began to understand their power as consumers of these western products and achieve nationalist goals Sun Yat-Sen 1866-1925 • review china society 1894 • Tonging hui - RevolutionaryAlliance 1905 • tried to advise the Qing court but was ignored • Both British and Chinese didn’t appreciate his skills • went to Hawaii, started security society to rebel Qing but failed • Ultimately settled in London and read a lot of economics, western political and economic theory • r
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