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Lecture 20

EAST 211 Lecture 20: EAST211_lec20_Nov21

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Asian Language & Literature
EAST 211
Rebecca Robinson

Monday, Nov 21 2016 1 of 5 EAST 211 The Chinese people have Stood up: revolu▯onary culture and art in the early PRC The Long March 1934-5 • Sun Yi Conference, Jan 1935 - Mao began to emerge as a leader - ideas used to be dismissed - Significant for Mao and CCP • End in Si Chuan, The Luding Bridge, May 1935 - suspension bridge with the long floor - river is very deep, - enemy troops (GMD were on the other side with clear line of fire) - victorious communist defeated GMD crossing the bridge ‣ the bridge was not in such terrible condition ‣ the GMD side has a few and were not armed ‣ symbolized a spirit of the long march ‣ victory of communist history - very significant • The yan’an Way - 8000 people left, many died - the march was an important to communism - consolidate Mao’s power - base for the party 1945-48, birth place of the revolution - massive increase in membership • Policies - puts aside their radical policies - required not the steal - Mao asserts the role of the leader for the party Talks at the Yan’an Forum on literature andArt 1942 • a talk for the artists who traveled to Yan’an to listen to the talk and support communism • Mao was opposed to them - think they didn’t understand their audience and political use • examine literary and artistic fields • emphasizes importance of culture in revolution • Artists should fuse their work with the workers, peasants and the soldiers and reflect their life • considers to be the political nature of all art - it could be dangerous and counter revolutionary • early ideology of the party The Civil War and GMD’s Retreat toTaiwan 1947-1949 • 1937 - Japanese attacks Chinese - Communist and GMD fought each other and Japanese • Oct 1 1949: declares the Chinese people have stood up: peoples republic of China • PRC Mao Declared all people would have a full range of freedoms • but their efforts were on practical tasks Monday, Nov 21 2016 2 of 5 - industries - agriculture - law and order need to be maintained • before they change people’s ideology they need to ensure peoples livelihood • convince the technocrats to work in the PRC • suffered brain drain • radical program for land reform - scaled down to small portion of the population • Party - party lead by Mao - State: Zhou enlace - peoples liberation army: Peng Dehuai - sometimes work independently, they struggle to gain control over the three elements with each other • begin a stable system, Mao stated: needed 3-5 years of peace to get on their feet, but they didn’t have that time due to the korean war • China send in volunteers for north korea while US aided south Korea - stalemate • Communist uses this as example of western imperialism • leads to mass mobilization campaigns (not tested) - rally the population against a common enemy - forced to engage in self criticism - foreigners of china: resist america - domestic subversion: weapons are confiscated from people, residence ID card - Anti: corruption, waste, obstructionist bureaucracy - industrialist and businessmen who were trying to continue capitalist pursuits in communist society • they bring revolution into the city, now have a taste to what revolution is like • back and forth between politics and economics - oscillate back and forth - politics lead by mao and the far right - economics lead by conservative members are in power, initiate reforms for economic growth even at the expense of revolution First Five Year Plan 1954-57 • Develop heavy industrial base • modelled on soviet fire year plans • announced the socialist phase was beginning • development of heavy industry vs. light industry, stimulate growth in agriculture and others industry • USSR and communist China collaboration • financial investment was quite small from USSR, but sent many experts to China to plan • Over all was a success, 16% per year, higher than target 14.7% • employment increased, more and more chinese left to the cities • command economy: government decides what is to be produced, how much to invest in different sectors, means of production - successful in the first 5 year plan, but disastrous later on Agricultural Collectivization Monday, Nov 21 2016 3 of 5 • wanted to get rid of the riches land holders • land reform was first stage, getting rid of the land lord class was important • MutualAid Teams • high level agricultural producers cooperativesAPC - collective farms - 200 households - party pushes this very hard - 88% peasants were organized into these high levelAPCs - Believe that through collectivization, increase in agricultural production • tried to awaken the peasants political awareness, have the peasants critiquing the land holders • grain tax - fund industrialization, wealthy peasants would lend to poor peasants • Agricultural collectivization - share tools, mutual aid teams, share farm utensils - collective farms • Communist had a lot of support in th
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