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Lecture 11

EAST 211 Lecture 11: EAST211_lec11_Oct17

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Asian Language & Literature
EAST 211
Rebecca Robinson

Mon, Oct 17 2016 1 of 5 EAST 211 Week 7 Lecture 1 Science and Technology in the Song Terms • Footbinding Mid term • In Leacock 26, full period time Social Roles of Women (Qingming Scroll) • Produce Sons - every women would marry, continue husband’s lineage - some didn’t marry and join monetary, or after her husband has died • Care givers - care giver to women’s parents in law, they were always subordinate - expected to serve mother in law - look after parents in law, feed them first - look after their health - take care of their bodily and spiritual needs • Ritual Role - take part in ancestral sacrifices with husband - presenting the new wife • Household Manager - took on the more important role within the house - husbands are away in business for commerce or official for long periods of time - women expected to manage the household and raise the children in the absence of the husbands - Husbands would sometimes bring wife but usually concubines - substantial economic power within the house hold • Educators of Children - expected to perform certain tasks, read confucian classics to the baby in the womb so the child would be a virtuous child - weren’t supposed to eat certain things while pregnant (ex. rabbit meat) - women’s behaviour could determined the gender of the child - beginning of education would happen in the family - expected to teach children literacy and confucian text and moral principles - train their daughters in womanly skills: textile and house hold management • Textile production - expected to make all the textile they would need for their family: clothes, blankets etc. - important source of income if they were skilled Changes from Tang Song • increased commercialization of textiles - women lose some of their abilities to work in this field • increased literacy among women Mon, Oct 17 2016 2 of 5 - important for wife to teach kids - praised when being good educators - women began to write on their own, fair amount of poetry produced • growth in the market for women as maids, concubines, courtesans and prostitutes - effects: brings a greater interconnection between the lower classes with the elites - coming from the lower class, sold because family cannot raise them or make money - lowest rank of elites start to be able to afford employing maids • revised notions of masculinity and femininity - loss of the north, Song military weakness - masculinity more defined as: knowledge of polite arts: calligraphy etc. • spread of foot binding - not exactly known when it started - northern and southern dynasties - attributed to a dancer who wanted to dance more elegantly; but unsure - practice that starts at court and spreads to the elites and then to the ordinary people - 100 years to ming dynasty everyone - physical restriction, limited women ability to walk and move - symbolizes interiority of women - reasons: song dynasty women and men, wanted to distinguish themselves with the barbarian northern empires ‣ the north women still very mobile ‣ they wanted to mark culture superiority - aesthetic: change the blood flow, the way they walk, like wearing heels - start a very young age - a way of passing down traditions within the family, mothers teach daughters their place in society - there was also lots of resistance with women as it has become part of the identity of women - handy craft industry - shoes, embroidery, mode of artistic expression - nationalist - modernist china against it Science technology and medicine • Agriculture and food culture • primary technology • weaving technology • medicine • military culture and technology • printing, gunpowder, magnet all come from china An industrial revolution • increased in iron output • switch from charcoal to coal • large water wheels - impressive
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