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Lecture 6

EAST 211 Lecture 6: EAST211_Lec6_Sept26

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Asian Language & Literature
EAST 211
Rebecca Robinson

Monday, Sept 26, 2016 1 of 5 EAST 221 Week 4 Lecture 1 Envisioning Eternal Empire: The Qin and Early Han Lecture Outline • Qin Shi Huangdi (King zheng) - first empire to unite all the state, takes on the title of emperor, distinguish from king - look what how Qin established the foundations for subsequent chinese dynasties • Mutual responsibilities system • liu bang han gaozu • Office hours 10am -12 pm 2. China First Empire The Qin 221 - 207 • Don’t know what happened that much • 350 the capital moved to modern day Xi an - surrounded by mountains, very strategic - good defence • far west of the culture sphere, very influenced by non-chines tribes and were influenced by them • Wanted to be part of Zhou culture and adopted their traditions • considered that they were disconnected from the rest of the Chinese culture sphere • New way to organize their state - modern • Qin had a new software - merit based bureaucracy • divide their land to administrative districts, reform on tax revenue Shang Yang the architect of Qin’s success 390-338BCE • moved the Qin • believed rather than looking at pass, based on change of societies which helped the qin Shang Yang’s Reforms • Mutual responsibility systems - communities were divided in group 5-10 house holds, each responsible of the behaviours of their house hold - rewarded if you report - divisions were rewarded by people they kill - encourage men to leave home and set up their own house holds, would not have one powerful house that would over throw the state - military service, pay taxes - responsibility measured by age and height - 20 ranks ‣ social hierarchy ‣ any time you had an increase in rank, you receive a gift in land ‣ rank not hereditary but land are - Land wasn’t owned, more of control Monday, Sept 26, 2016 2 of 5 *completely ignores slaves, doctors etc • land reforms • centralization ofAdministrative power - Social organization - Scholar - writes laws, the most important - Peasant - produce food - Artisan - produce things - Merchant - make money on the hard work of others; seen as least important; social inferior • displaying in law in public - easily accessible so people could complain that they didn’t know about the law • fixing and standards - standardized weights and measures - axles and horse charts were made on specific size - decrease monetary dispute - quality control and punished for it • executed in 338 Qin Expansion • Shu - 316 ; Ba 316 - rich in agriculture - salt mines - thought to be disconnected to east culture so over looked • Han - 230 • Zhao - 288 • Wei - 225 • Chu - 222 • Qin - 221 The First empire and his Prime Minister • Qin shi huangdi King Zheng - this title was never used, but wanted to distinguish himself, known as the first empire - simulated that his heirs would also be the emperors - hoped that it would last for 10 thousand years - established foundations of imperial rules • 259-210 BCE • Li Shi 280-208BCE - prime minister • created institutions • divided 36 and then to counties • all former rulers must move to capital and allowed the empire to keep watch and so they won’t gain power • collected privately own weapons and make massive statues of him Monday, Sept 26, 2016 3 of 5 • broke down walls and military defences between the warring states but did keep the northern wall, similar to the great wall • issued standardization, pushed through entire empire • unification of written script, easy for government documents to function - legal language • build a network of roads • arrogation canals • construction of massive Mausoleum of Qing Shi Huangdi - terracotta warriors - many people thought first emperor’s tomb was legendary - secret tomb, people were executed after completed - vary in height, generals were physically tall, figures were incredibly detailed - 8 different types of faces, different uniforms depending on rank - different hair style - cultural background - originally they were painted, but they have been faded • first emperor saw himself as a sage ruler while the dynasties after argue Qin was cruel - how society should function in harmony etc - but shaped the dynasties after • embarked on 5 inspection tours - visited religious states - series of stone ins
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