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Lecture 7

EAST 211 Lecture 7: EAST211_Lec7_Sept28

6 Pages

Asian Language & Literature
Course Code
EAST 211
Rebecca Robinson

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Wednesday, Sept 28, 2016 1 of 6 EAST 221 Week 4 Lecture 2 The Han: Moralizing Conquest, Over stretching and Fragmenta▯on Lecture Outline • the Han Dynasty (a brief overview) • Elite Wealth and Cultural production • The XiongNu • Debates over the Role o Government • Historical Writing and Literati Culture • Women in early China • Xiongnu • Dong Zhongshu • Debates on Stal and Iron • Records of the Grand historian ShiJi • Lessons for women Nu Jie Timeline • Qin Dynasty 221- 207 BCE • Western Han 206 BCE - 9 CE ‣ too many child emperors and courts were in power - Xin Dynasty 9CE - 23 CE ‣ not often referred to its own dynasty, Han wanted to get rid of it, it was eventually restored • Eastern Han 23 CE-220 CE - never regained the centralized power like the initial years in Western Han - small rebellions and fell in 220 - Liu bang gave land to relatives etc. ‣ locally powerful man who were somewhat autonomous from central government • There Kingdoms Period 220 -316CE Ellie wealth and cultural Production: Ma Wang Dui • show us how rich people lived in this period, and their intellectual traditions • archaeological discoveries • elaborate tombs, texts, • sealed in 168 BCE, a complex of tomb • 3 main tombs belong to a elite, his wife and son • excellent construction and favourable environment, 2 of the 3 tombs were preserved Lady Dai Tomb • Nest inside, Body were wrapped in 20 layers of silk to preserve • her skin was preserved and they found that she died from heart attack • found her everyday life uses • food, spices, clothes, text of inventory of everything that was supposed to be in the tomb • books and maps; easier to transport than bamboo texts Wednesday, Sept 28, 2016 2 of 6 • manuals; gymnastics manuals • fortune telling books • Maps: son was a military defence from the south • lineage died with the son, the imperial got replaced them with another family (elite family is slightly threatening) Han Views of theAfter Life • Banner draped in the inner most • 6ft long, divided in 3 main sections - 1. underworld (debate still) - 2. middle: women after death she is traveling up to the heaven - 3. upper: realm of the immortals • Earthy soul and a heavenly soul, when person dies they split, the early soul stays in the body, but the heavenly soul would flee up into the heavens Pacifying the empire: External Treats- the Xiongnu • formation of the xiong nu empire under Modu Shanyu - 209 BCE establish a state under Modu ‣ centralized government for Xiong Nu ‣ modern mongolia ‣ constantly raiding north Chinese towns ‣ skilled horse men - The Qin’s expansion forced them to defend and fight against them (threat) - Qin established northern wall to defence them • Harmonious Kinship Heqin Treaties 198 BCE - Han considered humiliating, they have to recognized Shanyu as equal of Han emperor - Han would send presents to the Shanyu - Princess to the Xiong nu - believed if these princess were sent to marry, that the Xiong Nu would become more civilized and han ‣ this never happened - Xiong nu agreed to not attack them anymore - when a new ruler took over they had to renew this 9 times and was humiliating • they were a constant threat and military was stronger than the Han • after Liu Bang died, Lü, his wife was in power and was vilified in China • Xiong nu were eventually defeated under costly military - broken up and didn't pose a threat anymore - Han took control of the north chunk of land - beginning of the silk road New Intellectual Traditions: Dong Zhongshu’s Confucian Synthesis • Han did not have a good ruling ideology at the beginning of the dynasty • they adopted Qin laws but said that they were nicer • debate whether government should initiate military campaign or appeasement • should it involved in everyones life, or mind its own business - benevolence • should the emperor be active in government or ritual figure head Wednesday, Sept 28, 2016 3 of 6 • should they have profit in tax • number of people working in government at this time and debating these issues • The government wanted the expand Han and needed to make money - the emperor traveled around and established palaces - make court meetings in different locations to show power and dominance in that location • death of emperor wu, conservative fashion began to dominate - government shouldn't be too involved - shouldn't make too much profit - shouldn't expand - emperor should stay in the capital and his benevolence would radiate outwards • Dong ZhongShu - scholar during the time of Emperor Wu - wrote things that angered the wrong people and exiled - worked becomes important after his death - blends confucian morality, yin yang “heaven, earth and man” - argues that rule has to govern and behave according to the patterns of the cosmos and seasons - just as there is time to harvest, there is time for government to act for growth - actives the government do should encourage growth - executions only take place in the winter - military campaigns during yin months - contains contributions of other authors to his writing - patterns of the cosmos through the 5 phases theory ‣ related to the mandate of heaven and the dynastic cycle ‣ water, food, fire, metal and earth ‣ although he didn’t come up with this theory, it is attributed to him - how to use Confucius teaching to govern, important to have laws and bureaucratic institutions, but they needed to be reformed - Qin rule were not efficient, need to take into account person’s intentions and circumstances - possible for someone to be ter
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