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Lecture 4

EAST 211 Lecture 4: EAST211_lec4_Sept19

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Department
Asian Language & Literature
Course Code
EAST 211
Professor
Rebecca Robinson

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Monday, Sept 19th, 2016 1 of 6 EAST 221 Week 3 Lecture 1 The Hundred Schools of Thought Pt. 1: Confucius and his disciples Lecture Outline • The Western Zhou • The spring andAutumn period • Warring states period - China was divided into many states - culturally important, time of 100 schools of thought, golden age of Chinese philosophy • Confucius (Kongzi) • Mencius (Mengzi) • Xunzi (Xunzi) Time Line • Western Zhou (1046- ) - distinction because zhou moved their dynasty from west to east • Eastern Zhou Regional Rulers of the Wester Zhou • Regional Rulers could not call themselves king • they would have to travel to the capital every year, bring king gifts • in return the king would bring gifts to regional ruler - ex. bronze gifts • provide troops to the king - when needed • keep political stability, king could replace ruler • at the beginning this system worked really well - as time went on, there became more and more distance between the king and regional ruler - less personal connection, these relationships broke down - regional rulers express more any more autonomy • dynastic cycle • King You - - corrupted ruler - Bao si - concubine: laughs because king lights but there was no attack, eventually troops lost confidence in him like the boy who cried wolf. - legend of how Zhou fell The Spring andAutumn period • -453 BCE • boarders and time were constantly changing • beginning there were 100 states, then went down to 50, by the end there were only 7 • participated in Zhou rituals, and Zhou bronzes • respected that king had the mandate of heaven, not rulers • considered that they all share the same culture. • named after Spring andAutumn annals Monday, Sept 19th, 2016 2 of 6 - complex reading that documented what happened that year by Lu state The Warning states (453BCE-221BCE) • Lou yang capital • Yan - smallest of the 7 - last state to emerge - north east, difficult to attack - never really powerful state, but territorially very secure • Qi • Wei - in 344, first ruler started to call himself king. • Zhao • Han • Qin - eventually became the first state to conquer all the states - located far west - strategic position, defended by mountain ranges - expansion very quick, expanded south and west - chu and ba, they had a lot of material resources • Chu - very large but lot of civil wars - southern people - distinct, different people - most archaeological evidence - weather was able to preserve - origin of who formed the han dynasty • There is no real consensus to when it started • difference to Spring andAutumn - Zhou king lost all his authority; only ritual authority, just a figure; like a head of state - queen/monarch. - the only person who called himself king, remained on throne, no army and no political power - warfare was more intensive and constant - 7 major states all fighting for territory Characteristics of warring states period • Social mobility - can raise socials status through military and as political advisors • regional rulers call themselves king - 344 - within about 20 years everyone started to call themselves kings • large scale warfare - new technology • raising demand for experts - victory over other states, employed experts from different aspects of knowledge - population were mobile because the change of boarders etc. Monday, Sept 19th, 2016 3 of 6 - ex. if you were a expert and wasn't happy with your state, you could move and offer your help to another ruler • production of philosophical political text - scholars emerge of this time; - travel between different states - earn living as instructions and advisors to different ruler The Hundred schools of thought • scholars were not concerned about man or organs • much more concerned with political theory • increased literacy with social mobility • more text were preserved than any other period • several issues with these texts - written on bamboo strips - most found were destroyed as it deteriorated over time • constantly edited, no author; changing over time • two versions of the same text - received: passed through generations - archaeological: buried in a tomb • there wasn't a single author for 1 text. • might have been different from the original author’s intents • text categorized in different schools • same theme: needs a better way to govern society and stop the constant wars Confucius • 551 modern shandong; back then Lu state • father lowest rank of nobility; from the nobel class, but wasn't super elite • wasn't super rich, held serval positions • accountant, live stock, advising rulers • most of his adult life teaching his philosophy • acquired reputation as the most learned man, first private thinker, not serving a particular ruler, independent ideas, not based on the requirements of a state • survival depended on students, many w
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